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canons from thirty-five to fifty, and founded a gram- mar school. On his death, the monks of Bath ignor- ing the chapter of Wells, elected as his successor Roger, one of their own community, for whom they obtained royal and papal confirmation, but the consequent appeal by the Wells chapter brought about the final settlement of the difficulty. The pope decided that Roger should remain bishop with the style " Bishop of Bath and Wells", and that the old arrangement as to joint election should in future be observed.

The history of the see was thenceforth tranquil, only three bishops during the next two centuries calling for special mention, Ralph of Shrewsburj- (1329-63), who completed the buildings; Thomas Bekynton (1443-65), another liberal benefactor of the city; and Oliver King (1495-1503), who rebuilt Bath Abbey in the Perpendicular style. One bishop, William Bytton (1267-74), died with a reputation for sanctity and his tomb became a place of pilgrim- age. In the fifteenth century there were two absentee bishops, Adrian de Castello (1504-18), during whose tenure the see was administered by the historian Polydore VergU; and Cardinal Wolsey (151S-23), who held the see simultaneously with that of York. After the dissolution of Bath Abbey in 1538, the bishop, though retaining the old style, had his seat at Wells alone, but final ruin was impending. In 1549 the notorious William Barlow was intruded into the see, and alienated much of its property. On the accession of Man,' he fled, and was succeeded by the last Cathohc Bishop, Gilbert Bourne (1554-59), who held the see till he was deprived of it by Eliza- beth and imprisoned in the Tower, thus becoming one of the eleven Confessor-Bishops who died in bonds. He died in 1569. Of the twin cathedrals of the diocese, Bath Abbey was rebuilt (1499-1539) in late Perpendicular style and is the last complete monastic building erected before the Reformation, while the cathedral at Wells, though small, is the most perfect example of a secular cathedral and one of the most beautiful Gothic buildings in England. Dating in the main from the early thirteenth, it was practically complete by the middle of the fourteenth centurj'. The diocese contained three archdeacon- ries, Bath, Wells, and Taunton. The arms of the see were: — Azure, a saltier quarterly quartered, or and az.

Hunter, A brief History of the bishoprick of Somerset to 1174 (Camden Society, 1840). 8; Freem.\n. History of the Cathedral Church of n'ells (London, 1870); Reynolds, Wells Cathedral, its Foundation, Constitution, History and Statutes (1880); Reg- isters of Bishops Giffard, Bowett and Fox (Somerset Record Society. 1889-99); Church, Chapters in the Early History of the Church of Wells, IISS-ISSS (London. 1894); De.\rmer. The Cathedral Church of Wells and a History of the Episcopal See (London, 1898, 3d ed., 1903); Somerset Archaeological Society Transactions.

EDw^N Burton.

Bathe, William, writer on music and education, b. at Dublin, Ireland, 2 April, 1564; d. at Madrid, 17 June, 1614. His parents, Jolin Bathe and Eleanor Preston, were distinguished both by their lineage and by their loyalty to the Catholic Faith. He went to Oxford about 1583 and while a student there wTote "A Brief Introduction to the Art of Music" (London, 1584). Another treatise from his pen, "A Brief Introduction to the Skill of Song", was

Cublished at London in 1600. These writings and is skill as master of various instruments, especially the Irish harp, won him the favour of Queen Eliza- beth to whom he was related through the Kildare family. His own inclinations, however, were towards the religious life. From the English court he went to Louvain where he studied theology. On 6 August. 1595 (1.596) he entered the novitiate of the Society of Jesus at Tournai. His later studies were pursued at St. Omer and completed at Padua. In 1601 Bathe was selected by the father general to accompany

Father Mansoni, the Apostolic Nuncio, to Ireland. This mission led them first to the Court of Spain and while there they learned that peace had been con- cluded between Spain and England and that the journey to Ireland was no longer necessary. Bathe remained in Spain, living at Valladolid and later at the Irish College in Salamanca. It was here that he wTOte his principal work "Janua Linguarum" (Salamanca, Ifjll). It was designed to facilitate the study of languages and thus to aid missionaries, confessors, and students both young and old. For this purpose, 1330 short sentences were grouped under certain headings, the Latin and Spanish on opposite pages, with an index giving the translation of the Latin words — in all about 5300. The work went through many editions in which its method was applied, by various combinations, to eleven languages, including Greek and Hebrew. It was printed at London (1615), Leipzig (1626), Milan (1628), Venice (1655), and by 1637 it had been pub- lished in Bohemian, lUjTian, and Hungarian. An English edition (London, 1617) bore the title, "The Messe of Tongues (Latin, French, English, Hispan- ish) ". It naturally found imitators, and among these the great work by John Amos Comenius holds first rank. In the preface to his "Janua Linguarum Reserata" (1631), Comenius acknowledges his in- debtedness to Bathe, while in the work itself he adopts and develops the plan which the Jesuit had originated. Bathe is also credited by some of his biographers (Alegambe, Sherlock) with a treatise on "The Mysteries of Faith" and another on the "Sacrament of Penance". Sommervogel, however, takes a different view. To his industry as a writer Bathe added an unflagging zeal for the spiritual welfare of his fellowmen, the relief of suffering, and the instruction of the poorer classes. He had just been invited by the King of Spain to give the spiritual exercises to the members of the Court when deatli ended his labours.

So.mmervogel, Bibl. de c. de J.: MacDonald in The Irish Eccl, Record. X. .527; HoGAN. Distinguished Irishmen of the Sixteenth CeJitury (London, 1894); Cooper in Diet, of Nat. Biog.; Pace. Bathe and Comenius, in Cath. Univ. Bull. (Washington. 1907), XIII.

E. A. Pace.

Batbilde (or Batilde), Saint, wife of Clovis II, King of France, time and place of birth unkno'vn; d. January, 680. According to some chronicles she came from England and was a descendant of the Anglo-Saxon kings, but tliis is a doubtful statement. It is certain that she was a slave in the service of the wife of Erchinoald. mayor of the palace of Neustria. Her unusual qualities of mind and her virtues in- spired the confidence of her master who gave manv of the affairs of the household into her charge and, after the death of his wife, wished to marry her. At this the young girl fled and did not return until Erchinoald had married again. About this time Clovis II met her at the house of the mayor of the palace, and was impressed by her beauty, grace, and the good report he had of her. He freed and married her," 649. This sudden elevation did not diminish the virtues of Bathilde but gave them a new lustre. Her humility, spirit of prayer, and large-hearted generosity to the poor were particularly noticeable.

Seven years after their marriage Clovis \1 died. 656, leaving Bathilde with three sons, Clothaire. Childeric, and Thierry. An assembly of the leading nobles proclaimed Clothaire III, aged five, kmg under the regency of his mother, Bathilde. Aid.'d by the authority and advice of Erchinoald and the saintly bishops," Eloi (Eligius) of Noyon, Ouen of Rouen, L^ger of Autun, and Clirodebert of Paris, the queen was able to carry out useful reforms. She abolished the disgraceful trade in Christian slaves, and firmly repressed simony among the clergj*. She also led the way in founding charitable and religious institutions.