Open main menu

Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 2.djvu/417

This page needs to be proofread.


BAYSIO


361


BEADS


1 insane asylum, 6 homes for the aged, and 1 private hospital, all conducted bj- Sisters, and 2 orphanages where farming is taught, conducted by Brothers, and 4 patronages for young people conducted either by priests or brothers. At the close of 1905 the Diocese of Bayonne contained 426,347 inhabitants, 43 pastorates, 449 succursales or mission churches, and 91 curacies.

In 1900 the following religious orders were repre- sented in the diocese: the Jesuits and Franciscans at Pau, and the Capuchins at Bayonne. Among the local congregations are: the Auxiliary Priests of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, devoted to teaching and mis- sionarj' work, founded at Betharram in 1841. They have missions at Bethlehem, Buenos AjTes, and ilontevideo. The Servants of JIary, who teach and serve in hospitals; their mother-house is at Anglet. The Bernardines, with mother-house also at Anglot, w'ere founded in 1846; they keep perpetual silence and divide their time between prayer and the work of sewing and embroiderj'.

Gallia Christiana Inora) (1715). I. 1261-1324; instrummia, 197-202; Dubabat, Etudes de I'histoire locale et reliffieuse (Pau, 1889-92); Idem, Le breriaire de Lescar de 1541 (Pau. 1891 ): DuBARAT .4ND Haristot. Etudes historiques et reliffieuses du diocese de Bayonne (1892); Dcches.n"E. Pastes episcopaux, II: Chevalier, Topobibliographie, s. v.

Georges Goyau.

Baysio (Baisio), Guido de, an Italian canonist, b. about the middle of the thirteenth century of a noble Ghibelline family; d. at Avignon, 10 August, 1313. The probable place of his birth is Reggio, where he also studied law under Guido de Suzaria. Here he became, successively, doctor and professor of canon law and also obtained an ecclesiastical benefice as canon. Gerhard, Bishop of Parma, attached him to liimself and remained his patron also as Cardinal-Archbishop of Sabina (d. 1302). To this patron Baysio dedicated his chief work, a commentary on the Decretum" of Gratian, which he WTote about the year 1300 and entitled "Rosar- ium". It is an excellent collection of older glossaries, not contained in the "Glossa Ordinaria", and princi- pally compiled from Huguccio. Many additions to the glossary which are found in the editions pub- lished since 1505 (Paris), are taken from the "Rosa- rium" of Baysio and appear over his name.

In 1296 Pope Boniface VIII appointed Baysio Archdeacon of Bologna and chancellor of the cele- brated university in that city. Here he at first taught canon law privately and later on became a public professor, which position he held for three years. Called to Avignon in 1304 he retained the dignity of archdeacon, held the office of papal chap- lain, and also served in the Apostolic chancery until his death. His stay at Avignon was marked by several literary productions. Here he wrote an accurate and complete, but rather diffuse, commen- tary on the Liber Sextus and also a "Tractatus super haeresi et aliis criminibus in causa Templario- rum et D. Bonifacii". This latter work was wTitten in connexion with the condemnation of the Templars at the Council of Vienne. The second part of the work constitutes a defence of the orthodoxj- of Boni- face VIII, and is published in Mansi, "Coll. Sacr. Concil.", XXV (Venice, 1782), 415-426. Having held the position of archdeacon, Baysio is often known by the name of Archidiaconus and thus quoted (see Ferraris, Bibliotheca, Rome, 1892), VIII, 271. His chief work, the "Rosarium", has gone through many editions: Strasburg, 1472; Rome, 1477; Venice, 1480; 1513; 1601, etc. The "Apparatus ad Sextum", Milan, 1480; Venice, 1577.

ScHULTE, Geschichte der Quellm u. Litteratur des ion. Rechla (Stuttgart. 1875). II. 186-190; Hcrter. Sommclator (Inns- bnick. 1899), IV, 413; Scherer in Kirchenlez., II. s. v.

Leo Gans.

Bazin, John Stephen, third Bishop of Vincennes


(now the Diocese of Indianapolis), b. at Duerne. near Lyons, France. 15 Oct.. 1796; d. at Vincennes. Indiana, U. S. A.. 23 April, 1S4S. He was educated in his native coimtry and ordained in the Cathedral of Lyons, 22 July, 1822. In 1830 he came to America and began his labours among the Cathohcs of Mobile. Alabama, where for seventeen years he toiled zealously for the rehgious instruction of the young, organizing the Simday schools and establishing the Catholic Orphan Asylum Society. He was also the vicar-general of the diocese. In 1846 at the request of Bishop Portier, Father Bazin went to France to secure the serWces of the Society of Jesus for the College of Spring Hill, .\labama, and of the Brothers of the Christian Schools for the Boys' Orphan .\sylum. In both efforts he was successful. When the Right Rev. Celestine de la Hailandiere, Bishop of ^'incennes, resigned his see in 1847, Father Bazin was consecrated liis successor on the 24th of October of that year. His episcopal career, which promised to be one of great usefulness to the Church, was cut short by his imtimely death.

Clarke. Lives of the Deceased Bishops (New York. 1888). II. 370; Shea. History of the Catholic Church in U. S. (New York. 1889). IV. 200 sqq.; Reuss. Biographical Cydopadia of the Catholic Hierarchy (Milwaukee. Wis., 1898).

Edw.ard p. Spillane.

Beads, Use of, at Pr.^yers. — Beads variously strung together, according to the kind, order, and number of prayers in certain forms of devotion, are in common use among Catholics as an expedient to ensure a right coimt of the parts occurring in more or less frequent repetition. Made of materials rang- ing from common wood or natural berries to costly metals and precious stones, they may be blessed, as they are in most cases, with prayer and holy water, thereby becoming sacramentals. In this character they are prescribed by the rules of most religious orders, both of men and women, to be kept for per- sonal use or to be worn as part of the religious garb. They are now mostly found in the form of the Dominican Rosarj', or Marian Psalter (see Ros.^ry); but Catholics are also familiar with the Brigittine beads, the Dolour beads, the Immaculate Concep- tion beads, the Crown of Our Saviour, the Chaplet of the Five Wounds, the Crosier beads, and others. In all these devotions, due to individual zeal or fostered by particular religious bodies, the beads serve one and the same purpose of distinguishing and num- bering the constituent prayers.

Rationalistic criticism generally ascribes an Orien- tal origin to prayer beads; but man's natural tend- ency to iteration, especially of prayers, and the spirit and training of the early Christians may still safely be assumed to have spontaneously suggested fingers, pebbles, knotted cords, and strings of beads or berries as a means of counting, when it was de- sired to say a specific number of prayers. The earliest historical indications of the use of beads at prayer by Christians show, in this as in other things, a natural growth and development. Beads strung together or ranged on chains are an obvious improve- ment over the well-known primitive method in- stanced, for example, in the life of the Egj-ptian Abbot Paul (d. A. d. 341), who used to take three hundred pebbles into his lap as counters and to drop one as he finished each of the corresponding inunber of prayers it was his wont to say daily. In tlie eighth centurj' the penitentials, or rule books relating to penitents, prescribed various penances of twenty, fifty, or more, paters. The strings of beads, with the aid of which such penances were accurately said, gradually came to be knowii as paternosters. Archae- ological records mention fragments of prayer beads found in the tomb of the holy abbess Gertrude of Nivelles (d. 659); also similar devices discovered in the tombs of St. Norbert and of St. Rosalia, both of