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BEAUREGARD


377


BEAUVAIS


at Tours; d. 1606 in Paris. Before entering the ecclesiastical state he held secular positions such as Councillor of Parliament and Chancellor of Francis of Valois, Duke of Touraine. The royal court greatly favoured him and appointed him to niunerous ecclesiastical offices. In 1568, he became Bishop of Mende and in 1581, Archbishop of Bourges. King Henry IV of France named him his grand almoner in 1591 and appointed him to the Archbishopric of Sens in 1595; but the pope did not confirm the ap- pointment imtil 1602. He was a member of the commission instituted by Henry IV in 1600 to re- form the University of Paris. By liis contem- poraries, Renaud de Beaune was considered one of the greatest orators of the time. Posterity rated his work for the pacification of France higher than his oratorical talent. It was his influence that led to the successful issue of the conference of Suresnes, near Paris, in 1593. He promised the conversion of Henry IV and brought about peace between the latter and the "League". He received the ab- juration of the king, and, although the absolution of an excommunicated prince was reserved to the pope, absolved him, July, 1593, on condition, however, that the approval of the Roman authorities should be obtained. In spite of this condition the absolution was invalid, and the action of the archbishop caused, at least partly, the delay in obtaining the papal con- firmation of liis nomination to the See of Sens. The principal works of de Beaune are: (1) Some dis- courses, among them funeral orations on Mary, Queen of Scots (1587), and on Queen Catharine de Medici (1589); (2) translation of the Psalms of David into French (Paris, 1575, 1637); (3) "La reformation de I'universite de Paris (1605, 1667).

Chalmei., HUtoire de Touraine (Paris. IS28), IV, 29-32; Gactieb in Grande Encyc, V, 10.54.

N. A. Weber.

Beauregard, Je.\n-Nicol.\s, celebrated French ixilpit orator, b. at Metz in Lorraine, 4 Dec, 1733; d. at the castle of Clroningen in Southern Germany, 27 July, 1804. He entered the Society of Jesus at \ancy, .30 Sept., 1749. After his noviceship and higher studies, he taught cla,ssics and rhetoric with distinction for six years at the colleges of the Society in Xancy, Verdun, Strasburg, and Pont-a-Mousson. His tlieological studies, which followed, were made in Strasburg, and after the year of third probation Father Beauregard was back at Nancy for the year 1766-67 as perfect of studies. The next year he was assigned to the task of preaching, which thenceforth became the work of his life. Having gained a won- derful reputation in the lesser towns of France, he was summoned to Paris, where his success was even more phenomenal. Especiallj' noteworthy was the course of sermons preached before the Court during the Lent of 1789, in which Father Beauregard is said to have clearly foretold the evils that were about to engulf France. Father Beauregard escaped the first terrors of the Revolution, but was forced to flee to London in 1794. Later on he established himself at Maastricht, then at Cologne, while his declining years were spent at the castle of the Princess Sophie of Hohenlohe-Bartenstein. His works, which for the most part are still only in manuscript, consist of ser- mons and letters. A collection of his sermons, made by one of his hearers, was first printed at Paris in 1820, often reprinted, and later embodied in Migne's "Orateurs Sacrfis", vol. LXXI.

Daniel. Le P. Beauregard, 8a vie el sea Iravaui; Sommer- voGEL. Bxbl. de la c. de J., I; Hamt, Galerie illuatree de la c. de /., I.

JoHK F. X. Murphy.

Beauregard, Pierre Gustave Toutant, soldier, li. near New Orleans, Louisiana, U. S. A., 28 May, 1818; d. there 20 February, 1893. He was appointed to the r. S. Militarj' .\cademy at West Point and


graduated in 1838. Assigned first to an artillery regiment, he passed to the engineers and served thereafter in that corps. During the war with Mexico he was engaged in the siege operations at Vera Cruz, Cerro Gordo, Contreras, Chapultepec, and the city of Mexico, being wounded twice in the last-mentioned battle (13, 14 September, 1847), and was brevetted major. After fourteen years of continuous service he was made Captain of Engineers, 3 March, 1853. The war over, he was given supervision of the construc- tion work along the Gulf coast, and on 23 January, 1861, was detailed as superintendent of the Military Academy at West Point. He almost immediately resigned, however, on 20 February, 1861, and threw in his lot with the seceding States of the Southern Con- federacy. He was placed in command at Charleston, South Carolina, and began tlie Civil War by the at- tack on Fort Sumter. When the fort was evacuated he was sent to Virginia and was in charge of the Confederate forces in the battle of Bull Run, 21 July. He was then sent to Tennessee, was second in com- mand to A. S. Johnson at the battle of Shiloh; suc- ceeding Johnson, when the latter was killed, he nearly routed the l^nion army in the first day's fight. Reinforcements arriving for his adversary, Gen. Grant, he was forced to retreat on the next day. Beauregard's failing health compelled him to take a leave of absence for three months, when, with a promotion to a general's rank, he was again placed in command at Charleston, where he successfully resisted for a year and a half the siege operations of Gen. Gilmore and his naval assistants. In May, 1864, he joined Lee in Virginia and held Petersburg against the Union advance. In October of the same year he was made commander of the military division of the West and sent to Georgia, and then to North Carolina where he united with Gen. J. E. Johnson to resist the march of Gen. Sherman. The attempt was futile and they surrendered. April, 1865. After the war he became president of the New Orleans, Jackson and Mississippi Railroad, and Adjutant-General of the State of Louisiana. In 1866 he refused the offer of the chief command of the Rumanian army, and in 1869 that of the army of the Khedive of Egypt. He lent his name to the Louisiana Lottery and as its salaried manager was for several years one of its chief supporters. He was the author of "Principles and Maxims of the Art of War" (Charleston, 1863) and "Report of the Defence of Charleston" (Rich- mond, 1864).

Roman, Military Operational of Gen. Beauregard in the War between the States, 1861-66 (New York, 1884); Cycl. of Am. Biog. (New York. 1900).

Thomas F. Mebhan.

Beauvais (Bellovacum), Diocese of, a suffragan of the archiepiscopal See of Reims. The Dioceses of Beauvais, Noyon, and Senlis having been suppressed by the Concordat of 1802 for the benefit of Amiens, a see was re-established at Beauvais in 1822, having within its jurisdiction the former Diocese of Beauvais and a large portion of the ancient Dioceses of Noyon and Senlis. A pontifical Brief of 1851 authorizes the incumbents of the See of Beauvais to call themselves Bishops of Beauvais, Noyon, and Senlis.

Diocese of Beauvais. — Tradition looks upon St. Lucianus, sent to Beauvais by Pope Fabianus and martyred, about 275, with his companions Maxianus and Julianus, as the founder of Christianity in that place. The martjTdom of St. Romana under Dio- cletian, of St. Just during the atrocious persecution by the legendary Rictiovarus (about 410), of St. Maxentia, daughter of the King of Scotland, who, about 4.50, preferred to die rather than follow her fianc^, render the primitive Church of Beauvais illustrious. The exact date of the foundation of the episcopal see is obscure, but we know that the bishop who occupied it from 632 to 660 was the thirteenth