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communal authorities to apply the law of 1804 or not, and for some fifteen years the law was disre- garded or observed at the pleasure of the mayors of the to\\Tis. With the lapse of time the enforcement of the law declined, and a further step was taken; in 1879, the year of the Loi de malheur, the Court of Cassation suddenly changed its traditional method and began to convict those mayors who enforced the law of 1804. From this date the enforcement of the law became a misdemeanour, and many adverse sen- tences fell on the authorities who believed them- selves boimd in conscience to maintain this decree. Owing to the inactivity of the Catholics, there has been, since that time, no freedom with regard to ceme- teries in Belgium.

Claessens, La Belgique chretienne depuis la conquHe fran- raise jusqu'a nos jours. 1794-1880 (Brussels, 1883); De La.vz-ic DE Laborie, La domination fran^ise en Belgique, 1795-1814 [Paris, 1895): Van Caenghem, La guerre des paysans (Gram- mont. 1900): De Gerlache, Histoire du Toyaume des Pays- Has (Brussels, 1875): Terlixden, Gut/Zaum*- /, roi des Pays- Bai. el VEglise calholique en Belgique. ISli-lSSO (Brussels, 1906); Jcste, La rerolution beige de ISSO (Brussels. 1872); DoLENBRAKDER, De Belgische omwenteling (The Hague, 1906); Ihonissen, La Belgique sous le regne de Leopold I (Li^ge. 1855-1858); Balau, Soirante-dir ans d'histoire contemporaine ie Belgique. 1816-1884 (Brussels. 1889); Discailles, Charles Rogier (Brussels. 1893-95); Hvmans, Frere-Orban (Brussels, 1905): Nyssens, Sudore Pirmfz (Brussels, 1893); DeTraxnoy, Jules Malou (Brussels, 1893); Verhaegen, La luUe scolaire ?n Belgique (Ghent, 1903): Vax Hoorebeke, Histoire de la politique contemporaine en Belgique depuis 1830 (Brussels, 1905); Bertrand, Histoire de la democratie et du aocialismc en Belgique depuis 1830 (Brussels. 1906); MacDonnel, King Leopold 11: His Rule in Belgium and the Congo (London, 1905); Blok, Geschiedenis van het nederlandsche volk (Levden, 1907). Statistics of Belgium in the Census of 31 December. 1900; Annuaire de statistique (1906); Annuaire du clerge beige (1906); Vloeberghs, La Belgique charitable (Brussels, 1904).


Belgrade and Smederevo, titular (united) sees of Scrvia. The history of these sees is as confused as their present plight is pitiful from the Catholic stand- point. Dalmatia and lUj-ria claim St. Titus, the disciple of St. Paul, as their first Christian missionary; but the first Bishop of Belgrade, Theodosius, dates only from 10.59. As the ancient Singidunum, how- ever, it was an episcopal see in the fourth century, but gradually declined during the invasions of the barbarian Slavs. The medieval see was founded by the King of Croatia. The Hungarians and the Vene- tians disputed the possession of Belgrade (Serb Beogrnd, white city). The latter having destroyed the town (1126), the episcopal see was transferred to the neighbouring Scardona, so extensively embel- lished by them that it received the name of Scardona Xova. Religion had long flourished there, for one of the bishops at the Council of Salona (5.30) signs as Epi.'^copii.'i EcclesiiE Scardonita7itp. On the occasion of the transfer to Scardona the title of Belgrade dis- appears for centuries from ecclesiastical historj'. The neighbouring city of Smederevo (Lat. Semendria) was also an episcopal see. Gams gives the names of four of its bishops from 1544 to 1605, a list, begin- ning 1.334, of bishops whom he styles "of Belgrade and Semendria" {Xadoralhenses et Bclgradenseit). It is certain that in 16.50 Innocent X re-established the title and See of Belgrade; for a Brief (4 December, 1651) is extant addressed to Matthew Benlich, fpiscopH.s Bellefjradensis , Ecclesice Samadiensis Ad- ministrator, creating him vicar Apostolic for those sees of the Church of Hungarj- which were under Turkish domination.

In 1729 the two Dioceses of Belgrade and Smede- revo were united by Benedict XIII, and in 1733 Vincent Bagradin became the first holder of the double title. Tlienceforward the list of bishops is regtilar and complete. The "Xotizie di Roma" (the official annual of the Holy See) gives the names of all the prelates of this see. I'ntil recent years Belgrade and Smederevo were considered residential sees; it is expressly so stated in the consistory of 1858. It

was added that these two sees (ancient Alba Grseca and Singidunum respectively) were suffragans of the metropolitan See of Antivari, and that the nomina- tion to them resided in the Emperor of Austria, "but as they are held by the infidels, their actual state is passed over in silence". For many years the title was given to the auxiliary of an Hungarian bishop (at present to the auxiliary of the Archbishop of Zagrab) who was bound to reside with his superior. The "Gerarchia" for 1906, without giving any notice of the change, has transferred this see to the list of titular bishoprics, though Bishop Krapac, who now holds the title, was named in 1904 as a residential bishop.

The present condition of this Church is most lamentable. The limits of the diocese are those of the Kingdom of Servia, which has an area of 18,630 square miles and a population (1905) of 2,676,989, belonging for the most part to the Greek schism, which is the official religion of the State. Since 1851 the Bishop of Diakovar acts as administrator Apos- tolic; since 1886 the territon,' is united to the eccle- siastical province of Scutari (Kirch. Handlex., I, 533). There are only two or three priests, who divide their activities between the three principal stations of Belgrade (4,000 Catholics), Kragujevatz (200), and Nish (1,000). There are also seven secondary sta- tions, numbering about 1 ,000 Catholics all told. (It is to be noted that according to the "Statesman's Year Book" for 1907, the Servian census of 1900 gives 10.243 Catholics.) One church, two chapels, and two elementary schools (at Belgrade and Xish respect- ively) complete the list of the mission's resources.

The statistics say nothing of Uniat Greeks, which leads us to suppose that these Latin Catholics are only western Europeans whose business obliges them to reside in Servia. Belgrade has (1905) a population of 80.747. Situated on the right bank of the Danube, jtist below the Save, it has always been a natural fortress, and as such is famous in military history. From 15'22 to 1867 it passed alternatel}' from Turks to Austrians; in the latter year the Turkish garrison was withdrawn, and in 1878, by the Treaty of Berlin, Belgrade became the capital of the new Christian Kingdom of Servia.

Missiones Calholica: (1906); Gams. Series Episcoporum. 396; ErsEL. I, 371. II, 219; Farlati. Ilyr. Sacr. (1769-1819). IV, 1-9. VIII, 144-151. 250-254; Kallat. Geschichte des Serben (1878); MoLLAT, La Serbie contemporaine (Paris, 1902).

Albert Battaxdier.

Belgrado, Giacopo, Italian Jesuit and natural philosopher, b. at Udine, 16 Xovember, 1704; d. in the same city, 26 March, 1789. He belonged to a noble family and received his early education at Padua. He" entered the novitiate of the Society of Jesus, 16 October, 1723, and showed marked talent, studying mathematics and philosophy at Bologna under Father Luigi Marchenti. a former pupil of Varignon at Paris. After completing his philosophi- cal studies he taught letters for several years at Venice, where he won the affection of his students as well as the esteem and friendship of the scholars of that city. He studied theologj- at Parma and then became professor of mathematics and physics at the university, holding this position for twelve years. While at Parma he did much experimental work in physics with apparatus specially constructed by two of his assistants. After pronouncing his solemn vows, on 2 February, 1742, Belgrado was summoned to the court, where he was appointed confessor, first to the Iluchess and later to the Duke Don Philippo. The ti- tle of mathematician of the court was also bestowed on him. In 1757 he erected an observatory on one of the towers of the college of Parma and furnished it with the necessary instruments, In 1773 he became rector of the college of Bologna. He was a member of most of the academies of Italy and a corresponding