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Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 2.djvu/476

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SELLINGS


416


BELLINI


mute institute, and 2 insane asyliims conducted by- brothers.

In 1900 the following religious orders were repre- sented in the Diocese of Belley: Carthusians, at Fortes and S^lignac ; Trappists at Notre Dame des Donibes; Marists at Belley; Lazarists at Musiniens; and Fathers of the Blessed Sacrament at Tr^voux. Congregations local to the diocese are: two teaching orders- the Brothers of the Society of the Cross of Jesus founded by M. Bochard in 1824. and the Broth- ers of the Holy Family, founded by Brother Taborin in 1835: and the Sisters of St. Joseph, with mother- house at Bourg. very numerous throughout the de- partment. At the close of the year 1905 the Diocese of Belley contained 350,416 inhabitants, 36 parishes, 404 mission churches, and 75 curacies.

Gallia Christiana (I860), XV, 601-644; Instrumenta, 305-358; Depery. Histoire hagioloqique de Belley (Bourg, 1834, lS3o>; NvD. 1iv.des sur les ori^ines du siege episcopal de Belley and Recherches historiques sur tcs origines et les temps anciens du diocese de Belley in the Revue de la sociMe litteraire de I' A in (1878, 1879, 1884, 1885); Duches.ve, Fastes episcopaux, I, 16; Chev.u-ier, Topobibl., 362.

Georges Gotau.

Bellings (or Bellixg), Sir Rich.^rd, Irish his- torian, b. near Dublin early in the seventeenth cen- tury; d. in 1677. He was the son of Sir Henry Bellings, a Catholic landowner in Leinster. He was trained to the law and entered Lincoln's Inn, London, and while there wrote a supplementary book (the sixth) to Sir Philip Sydney's "Arcadia", which has been generally printed with that work. He returned to Ireland, became a member of the Irish Parliament, and married a daughter of Viscount Mountgarret. In 1642, when the Irish Confederation was formed, Bellings joined, his father-in-law being president, and became secretary to the Supreme Council. He was sent to the continent in 1644 as a representative of this body. In the following year he returned to Ireland and was active as a royalist till 1649, when he -n-ithdrew to France, most of his property liaving been confiscated by the Cromwellians. His estate was restored to him after the accession of Charles II, who, with Ormonde, held him in high regard. He died in 1677 and was buried near Dublin. Perhaps his chief work is his defence of the Catholics of Ire- land. "Vindiciarum Catholicorum Hiberniae libri duo, which, under the pseudonym of "Philopater Irenaeus", was published at Paris in 1650. During his later years he also wrote an account of Irish affairs (1641—48), an imperfect copy of which was printed in 1772. The complete work was, however, recovered, and was published under the editorship of John T. Gilbert, with the following title: "History of the Irish Confederation and the War in Ireland, 1641-48". This edition (Dublin, 1882-85) is en- riched with many valuable documents and many illustrative notes, and was published from the original MSS. The above-mentioned Vindication" is regarded as one of the most trustworthy of the many works -written on that period. However, the Irish Franciscan, Father John Ponce, controverted many of its statements in his "Richardi Bellingi Vindiciae Eversse" (Paris, 1653). A "Letter from Richard Bellings to M. Callaghan" on Irish affairs (Paris, e. 1652) is to be found in a French translation of the same date in the Gilbert Library, Dublin.

Harris, Writers of Ireland (Dublin. 1764). "l. 165.

D. J. O'DONOGHTJE.

Bellini, Gi.^^como (J.\copo), father of Gentile and Giovanni Bellini, b. about 1400; d. 1471. Interest in him arises mainly from the fact that he was the teacher of his sons who were the chief founders of the Venetian school of painting. The paintings produced by Gia- como Bellini which are still in existence are unimpor- tant and few in number. His interesting sketch-book proves, however, his industrj' and power of observa- tion. It contains copies of antique statues and re-


Uefs, drawings portraying Biblical stories and Chris- tian legends, and sketches from nature and Ufe wliich are executed with animation and show a sense of perspective in the composition. He was a compet- itor in art of the painters of the Vivarini family who came from the neighbouring island of Murano; .\ntonio and Bartolommeo ^'ivarini opened a studio in Venice but they were excelled by the Belhnis. Giacomo Bellini had worked under Gentile da Fabri- ano in liis native city and at Florence. He had also been employed at other places, especially at Padua, where he came under the influence of the classic and plastic tendencies of Squarcione, His sons at an early age became his assistants at Venice.

CiEXTiLE Bellin'I. (b. about 1427; d. 1507). He was the elder of the brothers. He also had been in Padua and painted at first in the stjie of Squarcione, Dona- tello, and INIantegna; this style was good in conveying individuality, but it was weak in composition and somewhat clumsy. The painting containing the four heroic-sized figures of Saints Mark. Theodore. Jerome, and Francis, the picture of the patriarclis surrounded by ecclesiastics r.nd angels, a Madonna with the bene- factorc of a religious foundation, and a bust-portrait of the doge '-■elong to tliis period. At first Gentile wor'ied mainly in partnership with his father and b:-ot!-.cr, as at Padua in the CappelladiGattamelata, Bu after the father retired. Gentile's fame soon ex- ceeded that of the elder Bellini. He painted eight pictures in the Scuola di San Giovanni Evangehsta at Venice in continuation of his father's work "The Mi,acle of the Holy Cross". Three of these pictures, painted between 1490-1500, are preserved in a dam- aged condition at the Academy of 'S'enice. The.se pictures bear throughout the characteristic peculiari- ties of the Venetian school of painting. They are filled with figures from real life, which are clearly modelled, each figure having its own individuality; the religious processions are stately, the architecture which appears is of great splendour, and skill is shown in the perspective of lines and atmosphere.

The "Sermon of St. Mark at Alexandria", now at Milan, which Giovanni completed after the death of his brother, equals those just mentioned in worth. It also shows a large number of figures skilfully grouped, an over-elaborate arcliitectural back- ground, much pomp in the scene depicted, brilliant liglit, and great riclmess of colour. The Oriental costumes added a new grace to the painting. In 1479 Gentile had gone to Constantinople on the recommendation of the Signorj- who had been re- quested by the Sultan Mohammed II to send him a portrait-painter. Gentile painted the Sultan and other important personages. He brought home a great many sketches, including one of the Sultan and the Dowager Sultana in sitting posture. The jour- ney to Constantinople was not only instructive but greatly increased the fame of the painter. Among the fruits of this trip are a portrait (in the Layard collection at \'enice) giving the head and shoulders of Mohammed, and the canvas " Reception of the Vene- tian An-ibassadors by the Grand Vizier", now in the Louvre. The \-isit to Constantinople had, however, interrupted another large undertaking. In 1474 Gentile hatl been honoured with the comn-iission to restore the paintings in the Great Council Chamber of the doge's palace and to add to their number. Ear- lier artists had painted for the hall a series of pictures on a large scale representing scenes from the history of Venice. Gentile after liis return from Constanti- nople, in company with his brother, went on vrith the work. The seven pictures they produced were de- stroyed in the fire of 1577. In his middle and later period Gentile abandoned itempera and painted in oil.

Giov.iNxi Belli.N'i (b. about 1428; d. 1516) car- ried the new form of art to its greatest height. He was greatly influenced by the tendencies which have