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asterism named Mezarim (xxxvii, 9). Both the Vulgate and the Septuagint render this word by Ardurus, evidently in mistake (the blunder is not uncommon) for Arctos. The Great Bear circled in those days much more closely round the pole than it now does; its tj'pical northern character surs'ives in the Latin word septentrio (from septem triones, the seven stars of the Wain); and Schiaparelh concludes, from the dual form of mezarim, that the Jews, like the Phoenicians, were accjuainted with the Little, as well as witli the Great, Bear. He identifies the word as ihe plural, or dual, of mizreh, "a winno wing-fan", an instrument figured by the seven stars of the Wain, ijuite as accurately as the Ladle of the Chinese or the Dipper of popular American parlance.

Perhaps the most baffling riddle in Biblical star- nomenclature is that presented by the word Mazza- roth. or Mazzaloth (Job, xxxviii, 31, 32; IV Kings, xxiii, 5), usually, though not imanimously, admitted to be phonetic variants. As to their signification, opinions are hopelessly divergent. The authors of the Septuagint transcribed, without translating, the ambiguous expression; the Vulgate gives for its equivalent Lucifer in Job, the Signs of the Zodiac in the Book of Kings. St. John Chr3-sostom adopted the latter meaning, noting, however, that many of liis contemporaries interpreted Mazzaroth as Sirius. But this idea soon lost vogue, while the zodiacal ex- planation gained wide currency. It is, indeed, at first sight, extremely plausible. Long before the Exodus the Twelve Signs were established in Eu- phratean regions much as we know thera now. .\lthough never worshipped in a primary sense, they may well have been held sacred as the abodes of deities. The AssjTian manzaltu (sometimes written manzazu), "station", occurs in the Babylonian Oeatiou tablets with the import "mansions of the gods"; and the word appears to be etymologically akin to Mazzaloth, wmch in rabbinical Hebrew signifies primarily the Signs of the Zodiac, second- arily the planets. The lunar Zodiac, too, suggests itself in this connection. The twenty-eight "man- sions of the moon" (menazil at-knmar) were the lead- ing feature of .\rabic skj'-lore, anil they subserved astrological purposes among many Oriental peoples. They might, accordingly, have belonged to the apparatus of superstition used by the soothsayers who were extirpated in Judah, together with the worship of the Mazzaroth, by King Josias, about 621 B. c. Yet no such explanation can be made to fit in with the form of expression met with in the Book of Job (xxxviii, 32). Speaking in the person of the .\lmighty, the Patriarch asks, "Canst thou bring forth Mazzaroth in its time?" — clearly in allusion to a periodical phenomenon, such as the brilliant visibility of Lucifer, or Hesperus. Pro- fessor Schiaparelh then recurs to the Vulgate ren- dering of this passage. He recognizes in Mazzaroth the planet Venus in her double aspect of morning and evening star, pointing out that the luminary designated in the Book of Kings, with the sun and moon, and the "host of heaven", evidently be next in brightness to the chief light-givers. Further, the .sun, moon, and Venus constitute the great as- tronomical triad of Babylonia, the sculptured repre- sentations of which frequently include the "host of heaven" typified by a crowd of fantastic animal- divinities. .\nd since the astral worship anathema- tized by the prophets of Israel was unquestionably of Euphratean origin, the designation of Mazzaroth as the third member of the Babylonian triad is a valuable link in the evidence. Still, the remains one of extreme difficulty. Notwithstanding the scepticism of recent conmientators, it appears fairly certain that the "fugitive serpent" of Job. xxvn, 13 {coluber tortuosus in the Vulgate) does really stand for the circiunpolar reptile. The Euphratean con-

stellation Draco is of hoary antiquity, and would quite probably have been famihar to Job. On the other hand, Rahab (Job, ix, 13; x.xvi, 12), translated "whale" in the Septuagint, is probably of legendary or symbohcal import.

The subjoined list gives (largely on SchiapareUi's authority) the best-warranted interpretations of bibhcal star-names: Kimah. the Pleiades; Kesil, Orion; Ash, or Ayish, the Hyades; Mezarim, the Bears (Great and Little); Mazzaroth, Venus (Lucifer and Hesperus); Hadre theman — "the chambers of the south " — Canopus, the Southern Cross, and a Cen- tauri; Nachash. Draco.

The New Testament is virtually devoid of as- tronomical allusions. The " Star of the Magi " can scarcely be regarded as an objective phenomenon; it was, at least, inconspicuous to ordinary notice. Kepler, however, advanced, in 1606, the hypothesis that a remarkable conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn, which occurred in May of the year 7 B. c, was the celestial sign followed by the ^^'ise Men. Revived in 1821 by Dr. Mtinter, the Lutheran Bishop of Zealand, this opinion was strongly advocated in 1826 by C. L. Ideler (Handbuch der Chronologie, II, 399). But the late Dr. Pritchard's investigation (Smith's Diet, of the Bible, Memoirs Roy. Astr. Society, XXV, 119) demonstrated its inadequacy to fulfil the re- quirements of the Gospel narrative.

ScHlAPARELLi, L'Astronomia neW antico Testamento (Milan, 1903, tr. OxfoTtl, 1905); Stopp.vni, La Cosmogonia Mosaica (Milan, 1887); Riehm, Handwiirterbuch des bthlischen Alter- turns (Leipzig, 1893); Mahler, Biblische Chronologie (Vienna 1887); ScHRADER, Die Keilinschriften und das alte Testament (Berlin, 1903); Jen-sen, Kosmologie der Babylonier (Berlin.

1890 ); Delitzsch, Commentary on Job (Leipzig, 1864,

tr. Edinburgh, 1866): Gesenius, Thesaurus Linguae Hebrcrce (Leipzig, 1829); .Stern, Die Stembilder in Hiob in Judische Zeitschrift (1864), III, 258; Ideler, Untersuchun^en iiber den Ursprung der Stemnamen (Berlin, 1809); Delitzsch, Das Buck Hiob (Leipzig, 1902).

Agnes M. Clerke.

Astros, P.\ui/-Therese-David d', a French cardi- nal, b. at Tourves (Var) in 1772; d. 29 September, 1851. He was a nephew of Portahs, a minister of Napoleon, and as such was engaged in the formula- tion of the Concordat of 180L On its conclusion he was made vicar general of Archbishop (later. Cardinal) Belloy, of Paris, and after the latter's death (1808) administered the diocese until the nomination of Cardinal Maurj'. He received, and was accused of promulgating, the bull of Pius \'II (10 June, 1809), excommunicating Napoleon. For this act he was imprisoned at Vincennes until 1814, .\fter the Restoration he became Bishop of Bayonne. and in 1830 .Archbishop of Toulouse. -\t the re- quest of Louis Napoleon, Pius IX created him cardinal, in 1850. He wrote "La verite cathoUque d^raontree; ou, Lettre aux Protestants d'Orthez" (2 V. 8°, Toulouse, 1833). He was one of the earliest opponents of Lamennais, against whom he wrote " Censure de divers ecrits de La Mennais et de ses disciples par plusieurs eveques de France, et Lettres des m&mes eveques au .souverain pontife, Gregoire XVI", etc. (Toulouse, 1835).

Hergenrother, Kardinal Maury (1878), 82. 132 sq.; ^■ACA^•T, Diet, de thiol, cath., I, 2142.

Thomas J. Sh-ajban.

Astruc, Jean, b. at Sauves, 19 March, 1684; d. at Paris, 5 Maj-, 1766. He was the son of a con- verted Protestant minister, .\fter he had taught medicine at Montpellier, he became a member of the Medical Faculty at Paris. His medical writings, however numerous, are now forgotten, but a work pubUshed by him anonjTnously has secured for him a permanent reputation. This book was entitled: "Conjectures sur les m^moires originaux dont il paroit que Moyse s'est servi pour composer le livre de la G^nese. .\vec des remarques qui appuient ou qui ^claircissent ses conjectures" (Brussels).