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of Sweden, and crowned at Stockholm by Archbishop Bengtsson. General discontent soon followed, especially when Christian I, on becoming heir to his uncle, Duke Adolph of Holstein, found himself in great financial straits. To meet his obligations, he levied enormous taxes, even in Sweden, without exempting ecclesi- astics, religious foundations, or the moneys collected by papal mandate to defray the expenses of a cru- sade against the Turks. During a temporary ab- sence of Cliristian I in Finland, the archbishop held the regency of Sweden; seeing the people in revolt against him and the hea'j' imposts, he took up their cause and suspended the collection of taxes. The king showed his displeasure by arresting the arch- bishop and sending him to Denmark. A revolution broke out afresh in Sweden, Karl Knuts.son was recalled to the throne, and Christian I, to recover the country, became reconciled with his prisoner. Bengtsson went at once to Sweden, where he roused the people against King Karl Knutsson, whom lie excommunicated. The archbishop succeeded finally in bringing about Knutsson's abdication, and the recognition of Christian I once more as King of Sweden. In reality, however, the archbishop held the reins of power and administered affairs as though he were the actual sovereign. He was unable to sustain this role. Discontented factions combined against him and, in 1466, elected Erik Axelsson Thott as regent, whereupon Archbishop Bengtsson was compelled to retire. Dissensions continued, and the king of the Swedish party, Knuts.son, once more took the place of the king who represented the union of the three countries. The archbishop Found an asylum with his friend Magnus Gren, on the island of ffiland, where he died 15 December, 1467, "poor and exiled, regretted by no one, hated by many, and feared by all". The key to the political activity of Bengtsson is to be found in the ambition that was a part of his character — ambition for his family and his country. There was a strong antagonism between the great Oxenstjerna family, to which the be- longed, and the Bonde family, of which the king, supported by the national party, was a member. Moreover, the archbishop was aware that the nobility and the leading men of Sweden, before the Union of Calraar, had in general failed to respect the clergy ind the property of the Church. In a union of Sweden with Denmark and Norway, he foresaw a limitation of the power of the Swedish nobles; in his character of archbishop, it was clear to him that 5uch curtailment would be a safeguard to the tem- poralities of the Church. Kf.cterdahl, Sfenska Kyrkana historia (Lund, 1838-66); .lles, De Irp nordiske risers hhtorU (Copenhagen, 1870); Dalin, Sv^a Rikes Historia (Stockholm, 1747-62); Geijer, ^rt.„,kn F.' Uiolnria (CErebro, 1832-,'iB); Strinholm, s ...- ' /,,/,,, 11 sirii fra aldsta til narvararula Tider I.Stock-

'■;: I M . . ;>;Lias, HiLDEBRAND, Alin. Svcrigea

/ ! , -: , r- 1 I t'G, Bidrag til Skandinaviene Historia I ;.li J.I.J. 1 -jTtj . .Mlller, De forste Konger of del otdenr- _skt hus: 0tRLA.NU. lUustr. Norges historia (Krnia, 1885- }5); .VissEX. De nordiske Kirkers historic (Krnia. 1884); Dc.vHAM. History of Denmark, Sweden and Norway (London, IS4n'; CROxnoLM, A History of Sweden (Chicago. 1902). E. A. Wang. Bengy, .-.tole de, a martjT of the French Com- mune, b. at Bourges, 19 September, 1824; d. in Paris, 26 May, 1871. He spent nine years in residence at the Jesuit College of Brugelette, and in 1843 entered the Society of Jesus. During the Crimean War he served .as chaplain to the French soldiery and there- ifter until 1870 devoted his life to college work. When the Franco-Prassian War broke out, lie again sought and obtained the post of chaplain. He ren- dered signal service to the sick and wounded during the siege of Paris. After the war he retired to the school of Sainte-Oenevifeve to resume his work as pro- fessor, but he did not long enjoy the tran<|iiillity of school-hfe. At midnight, 3 April, a battalion oi National Guards surrounded the school and placed all the Jesuit inmates under arrest as hostages of the Commune. De Bengy cheered his companions during the dark days of anticipated death. On Friday, 26 May, with two Jesuit companions and some forty other victims, he was led to the court of the Cit6 Vincennes, Rue Haxo, where he met his death joy- fully amid the frenzied shouts of the maddened Com- munists. De PoxLEVoy. Actes de la captiviie et de la mart des RR. PP. Oliimnt. Ducoudray, Caubert, Clerc, de Bengy (loth ed., Paris, D. J. K.V.N.GH. Benignus (Bexex), S.^in-t, date of birth unknown: d. 467, son of Sesenen, an Irish chieftain in that part of Ireland which is now County Meath. He was bap- tized by St. Patrick, and became his favourite disciple and his coadjutor in the See of Armagh (450). His gentle and lovable disposition suggested the name Benen, which has been Latinized as Benignus. He followed his master in all his travels, and assisted him in his missionary labours, giving most valuable assist- ance in the formation of choral services. From his musical acquirements he was kno^Ti as "Patrick's psalm-singer", and he drew thousands of souls to Christ by his sweet voice. St. Benignus is said not only to have assisted in compiling the great Irish code of Laws, or Senchus Mot, but also to have contributed materials for the " Psalter of Cashel", and the "Book of Rights". He was present at the famous synod which passed the canon recognizing "the See of the Apostle Peter" as the final court of appeal in difficult cases, which canon is to be found in the Book of Ar- magh. St. Benignus resigned his coadjutorship in 467 and died at the close of the same year. His feast is celebrated on the 9th of November. Most authorities have identified St. Patrick's psalm-singer with the St. Benignus who founded Kilbannon, near Tuam, but it is certain, from Tirechdn's collections in tlie Book of Armagh, that St. Benignus of Armagh and St. Benig- nus of Kilbannon were two distinct persons. The former is described as son of Sesenen of County Meath, whilst the latter was son of Lugni of Con- naught, yet both were contemporaries. St. Benignus of Kilbannon had a famous monastery, where St. Jarlath was educated, and he also presided over Drumlease. His sister, Mathona, was Abbess of Tawney, in Tirerrill. Capgrave. Nova Legenda Anglia- (1516), foK 36. for the oldest hves of the saint; see also Hardy, Descriptive Catalogue, etc.. I, 89; Ware-Harris, Antiguities of Irelnml, I. 34, II. 6; O'Hanlon. Lives of Irish Saints (9 November). XI; Whitlev Store.? (ed.). Tripartite Life of St. Patrick, Rolls Series (Lon- don, 1887). in index s. v. Benen, Bexigxu.s; Bihl. Hagiogr. Lat. (1898), 172, 1324; Forbes in Diet, of Christ. Biog.. I. 312. The very ancient Lcabhar-na-gceart or Book of Right.';, .said to have lieen compiled by Benignus was edited by O'Doxovax for the Celtic Society (Dublin. 1847). Benignus is said to have been the original compiler of the Psalter of Cashel (see Cashel). W. H. Flood. Benignus of Dijon, S.mxt, Martyr, honoured as the patron saint and first herald of Christianity of Dijon (Divio), an old city in the territory of the Gallic tribe of the Lingones (civitas Lingoniim. Langres). It is an historical fact that Benignus suf- fered martyrdom in a persecution of the tliird century and was publicly honoured as a mi'rtyr. His feast falls on 1 Novemljcr; his name stands under this date in the .so-called Martyrologj' of St. Jerome (ed. Rossi- Duchesne; cf. .A.cta SS., November, II, 138). Early in the sixth century no particulars concerning tlie person and life of Benignus were known at Dijon. According to Ciregory of Tours the common people reverenced his grave; but Bishop Gregory of Lan- gres (507-539 or 540) wished to put an end to this veneration, because he believed the grave to belong to a heathen. Having learned in a vision at night