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were compiled with more or less co-operation from his followers. One of these disciples, E. Dumont, helped to secure for Bentham, at the opening of the nineteenth century, international fame as a legal and social reformer by arranging Bentham's writings and publishing them in French. About this period he was engaged in many philanthropic schemes, the chief of which was one for the reform of the con- vict prison system. This undertaking, though aided by the British Government, proved a failure. After the peace of 1815, when the codification of laws was occupying a large place in the attention of statesmen, Bentham's writings were studied, and he himself consulted, by jurists of Russia, Spain, Germany, and some South American countries He also exerted an influence upon legislation in the United States, notably Pennsylvania and Louisiana. In England his ideas of political reform were taken up by the leaders of the rising radicalism, Cobbett, George Grote, the two Mills, and others. With them, in 1823, he established the "Westminster Review" as the organ of the party. He maintained a correspondence with many prominent men of his day, including Madison and Adams, Presidents of the United States.

Bentham attacked the Established Church as a factor in the general system of abuse, and from the Church he passed, characteristically, to the Cate- chism, then to the New Testament, and finally to Religion itself. In the "Analysis of Religion", published by George Grote under the pseudonym of Philip Beauchamp, he applies the Uiilitarian test to religion, and finds religion wanting. True to this same principle in ethics, Bentham maintained hap- piness to be the sole end of conduct; pleasure and pain, the discriminating norm of right and wrong; and he reduced moral obligation to the mere sanction inherent in the pleasant or painful results of action.

The patriarch of utilitarianism, as Bentham has been called, was of upright character and simple in his manner of life. His bent of mind was for the abstract; and he was singularly deficient in the wisdom of the practical man of the world. Never- theless, circumstances turned him to grapple with intensely practical problems; and, with the help of his followers, he has wielded on political development and philosophic thought in England a powerful influence which is far from exhausted. The spread of his ideas contributed signally to the carrj'ing of Catholic Emancipation in 1829 and the beneficent parliamentary reform of 1832. At the same time they helped to open the way in English ethical and theological speculation for the positivism and agnosticism of the last half of the nineteenth century. One of his principal works, " Deontology, or the Science of .Morality", was published after the author's death by his disciple Sir J. Bowring, who also edited Bentham's collected works in eleven volumes (1838- 43). This edition has not been superseded. A good edition of the "Fragment on Government" was issued by the Clarendon Press in 1891.

.Stephen, The English Utilitarians (New York and London, 1900), I, which contain.^ a complete hst of Bentham's volumi- nous writings; Atkinsos, Bentham: his Hie and uork (London, 190.5); Aldee, A Flislory of English Utilitarianism (New York and I^ondon, 1902); Hai.evy, La formation du radicalisme philoeophigue (Paris. 1901); Reeves, Bentham and American Jurisprudence (London, 1906); Dillon, Laws and Jurispru^ dence of England and America (Boston, 1894); AuBTI.v, Lec- tures on Jurisprudence (London, 1865, 5th ed,).

James J. Fox.

Bentivoglio, Family of, originally from the cas- tle of that name in the neighbourhood of Bologna, Italy. They claimed descent from Enzio (c. 1224-72), King of Sardinia, a natural son of Frederick II. Dur- ing the fourteenth century the family belonged to one of the workingmen's guilds at Bologna, where it became all-powerful in the fifteenth centurj'. It contracted alliances with the Kings of Aragon, the Dukes of Milan and other sovereigns; and in its later history.

became one of the prominent families of Ferrara. The following are the principal ecclesiastical members: (1) GuiDO, Cardinal, b. at Ferrara 1579; d. at Rome 1644. He studied at Padua, went to Rome and was subsequently sent by Paul V as nuncio to Flanders (1607) and France "(1617). He successfully settled the clifferences that arose between Catholics and Huguenots, was created cardinal in 1621, and ap- pointed by Iving Louis XIII protector of French interests at Rome. He held the latter position until 1641, the date of his appointment to the episcopal See of Palestrina. He was the most trusted friend of Pope Urban VIII and would undoubtedly have become his successor, had lie not died during the con- clave. He left several historical works, dealing chiefly with affairs in Flanders and France; they were trans- lated into French, and published as a collection fV'enice, 1668). (2) Cornelio, Cardinal, b. at Ferrara 1668; d. at Rome 1732. He went at an early age to Rome, was appointed Archbishop of Carthage, and in 1712 nuncio to Paris. He showed more zeal than discretion in his dealings with the Jansenists and had to be recalled at the death of Louis XIV (1715). He became cardinal in 1719, and Spanish Minister Pleni- potentiary at Rome in 1726, a position which he held until his death.

Kadlen in Kirchenlex., II, 385. 386; Mazzuchelli, ScrittoH d Italia (Brescia, 1760) II, ii, 867-82.

N. A. Weber.

Bentley, John Francis, English architect, b. at Doncaster, Yorkshire, in 1839; d. in London, February, 1902. From early days he exhibited a strong inclination towards the profession in which he was to make so great a mark. His parents were not in sympathy with him, so, at the age of sixteen, he placed himself voluntarily vith the Clerk of the Works at Lover- sail Church. In 1 855 he began his probation with Sharpe, Stewart & Co., of Man- chester, going to London, in 18.58, where he was as- sociated with Hol- land & Hannan and then with Henry Glutton. He started for himself in 1868. He was a firm believer in the archi tec tural principles and

methods of the .Middle Ages, giving to every de- tail in his work, from foundation to furniture, his personal attention. He was an apt modeller and had tried his hand with success at stone carving. As a draughtsman, and especially as a colourist, he was very successful, his designs for marble and metal work, jewellery, stained glass, and heraldic decorations being of great beauty.

His first important commission was from Cardinal Manning, for the seminary at Hammer.sniith, and amongst his buildings should be mentioned the Church of the Holy Rood, at Watford; the con\ent chapel, at Braintree; the chapel of Beaumont College, Old Windsor; St. Anne's Cathedral, Leeds; and St. Mary's, Cadogan Place, Chelsea. He was also re- sponsible for tlie baptistery, font, and monstrance at St. Francis, Notting Hill; the reredos and altar at St. Charles, Ogle Street, Marylebone, sedilia and Sacred