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iards. Benzoni, while not unsuccessful in what he undertook, conceived an inveterate hatred of the Spanish people and Government and in return for the protection given him and for favours which he was compelled reluctantly to acknowledge, wrote and published a book of diatribes and accusations against Spain in America. It contains interesting details about the countries he visited, but abounds in errors and often in intentional misstatements. What Benzoni states about the Antilles is a clum.^y rehash of Las Casas. His reports on the conquests of Mexico, and Peru bristle with errors.

The book of Benzoni " Historia del Mondo \uovo ", was published at Venice in 156.5. He dedicated it to Pope Pius IV. It was at the time when the con- troversy concerning the treatment of the Indians was hottest, and a work, written by one who had just returned from the New World after a stay of fifteen j-ears, could not fail to attract attention. In writing it, no standard of criticism was applied; this was not in the spirit of the times. The ultra-philanthropists found Benzoni a welcome auxiliarj', and foreign nations, all more or less leagued against Spain for the sake of supplanting its mastery of the Indies, eagerly adopted his extreme statements and sweeping accusa- tions. Several editions were published in rapid suc- cession; translations were made into English as well as into several other languages. Intrinsically, the book has small merit, except in as far as it presents and describes facts witnessed by the author. Even these are not always faithfully reported. It might be called a controversial document because of its violent partiality and hostility. It does not notice mitigat- ing circumstances, and ignores what is good when it does not suit the author. Benzoni wTites sometimes like a disappointed trader, and always as a man of limited education and ven;- narrow views. His "His- toria del Mondo Xuovo" (Venice, 1.565) was reprinted in 1572, and translated into French by Eustace Vignon, 1579. Aside from the annotations which are often trivial and as partial as the book itself, the English translation, "History of the New World by Girolarao Benzoni" (London, 1S57), by the Hakluyo Society, is certainly the best. Ad F. B.\ndelier.

Beogh, Abbot of B.\noor. See Lough De.\rg or St. Patkkk'.s Purgatory.

Bequests, Religious. See Legacies.

Berach, Saixt, of Termonbarry, d. 595; a disciple of St. Kevin and a celebrated Irish saint, whose memory is still fresh in County Roscommon. He was of the tribe of Cinel Dobtha, or O'Hanley of Dooliey Hanley. to which also belong the MacCoilidh family. Most of his long life was spent in the Diocese of Elphin, and he built his church at Cluain Coirpthe since known as Termonbarry or Kilbarry. His sister, St. Mida- baria, was abbess of a nunnery at Bumlin (Strokes- town), of which she is venerated as patroness on 22 February. Her ancient conventual church and grave- yard are still to be seen. Lender the title of "Berach of Cluain Coirpthe" St. Berach is honoured in several martjTologies, and his holy life attracted pilgrims to Kilbarry from all parts of Ireland. The MacCoilidh family, whose name was anglicized to Cox in the early years of the seventeenth century, were heredi- tary custodians of St. Berach 's crosier, and were coarbs, or lay abbots, of Kilbarrv. The crosier is now in the Dubfin Museum. In 1890, Dr. M. F. Cox, of Dublin, the lineal representative of the MacCoilidhs, unearthed St. Berach's boat, and had it placed l)eside the present Catholic church of Whitehall, near Kil- barry. St. Berach's oratory at Cluain Coirpthe was replaced by a fine dnrnhbag (stone church), built by MacCoilidh and O'Hanley in 916, and acquired the name of Termon Barrj'. or Kilbarp-, that is the church of St. Berach. Some authorities give his feast as 11 February, but most martyrologists assign him II.— 3)

15 February. Kilbarrack Church, County Dublin, was also called after this saint, as in his early days he spent some time there and performed many mir- acles, duly recorded in his life. His bell was long preserved at the Abbey of Glendalough, but has dis- appeared since the sixteenth century.

O'Do.N'OVAN. Acta Sanctorum; Annals of the Four Mastfrs; Annals of Ulster (Rolls Series); OHanlon. Lives nf the IrUk Saints (15 February), II: Stokes, Early Christian Art in Ire- land (1887); CoLGAN. Acta Sanct. Hib. (15 February); Healy, Ireland's Ancient Schools and Scholars (4th ed.. 1902); Cox, MS. Meccoilidhana; Kelly, Patron Saints of the Diocese oi Elphin (1904).

W. H. Grattan Flood.

Berard of Carbio (or Beraldus), Saint, Friar Minor and martjT; d. 16 January, 1220. Of the noble family of Leopardi, and a native of Carbio in I'mbria, Berard was leceived into the Franciscan Order by the Seraphic Patriarch himself, in 1213. He was well versed in Arabic, an eloquent preacher, and was chosen by St. Francis, together with two other priests, Peter and Otho, and two lay-brothers, Accursius and Adjutus, to evangelize the infidels of the East. On the conclusion of the Second General Chapter in 1219, St. Francis believed that the time had then come for the religious of his order to extend their apostolic labours beyond the Itahan peninsula and Northern Europe; and, choosing for himself and twelve other religious the greater part of SjTia and Egj'pt, he allotted to Berard and his companions the missions of Morocco. The five missionaries set sail from Italy, and after sojourning some time in Spain and Portugal finally arrived in the Kingdom of Morocco. Their open preaching of the Gospel there and their bold denunciation of the religion of Mahomet soon caused them to be apprehended and cast into prison. Hav- ing vainly endeavoured to persuade them to abandon the true religion, the Moorish king in a fit of rage opened their heads vrith his scimitar, and thus were offered to God the first fruits of the blood of the Friars Minor. Berard and his companions were canonized by Sixtus V, in 1481. The feast of the raartjTS of ^iorocco is kept in the order on the 16th of January.

Leo. Lives of the Saints and Blessed of the Three Orders of St. Francis (Taunton. 1885), I, 99-Ul; Waddikg. Annates Mino- rum, I, 155, 318, 320 et peissim; Analecta Franciscana (Quarac- chi, 1885), II, 13; Passio Sanctorum Martyrum Fratrum Beraldi, etc., in Anal. Francis. (Quaracchi, 1897). III. 579- 59(i; also Anal. Francis. 'Q-aracchi, 1906), IV. 322-323; Acta SS., January, II. 426-**«5; Calalogus SS. Frat. Min., ed. Lfmmens (Rome, 1903).

Stephen M. Donovan.

Berardi, C.\rlo SEB.iSTi.4.N0, a canonist, b. at Oneglia, Italy, 26 .\ugust, 1719; d. 1768. Having studied theology at Savona under the Piarists. he was promoted to the priesthood and then began the study of law at Turin, paying particular at- tention to canonical jurisprudence. In 1749 he was appointed prefect of the law-faculty of the University of Turin, while from 1754 till his death he was professor of canon law in the same institution.

Berardi's works are: (1) "Gratiani canones genuini ab apocrjTihis discreti, corrupti ad emendatiorum codicum fidem exacti, difficiliores commoda inter- pretationc illustrati" (4 vols, quarto, Turin, 1752- 57; Venice, 1777, 1783). Richter (in Proleg. od Gratiani Decretum) says of this work that one knows not whether to admire more the knowletlge or diligence evidenced in it, while all unanimously declare that, as a critical exposition of Gratian's Decretum, it is surpassed by Antonio Agoslino's work alone. The great value of the work lies in this, that it sets forth the original authorities of the Decretum, though carelessness is apparent at times in tlie author's endeavours to distinguish genuine sources from those that are spurious. Beranli. moreover, is occasionally hypercritical. .\ com-

fjcndium of this work by an unknown writer, pub- islied at Venice, 1778, is entitled, "Compendium