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does not treat it as an independent city; but it is mentioned as such by Justinian in a Novella of 536, among the cities of Armenia Secunda. It must be remembered that this emperor, when creating the province of Armenia Quarta in 536, gave to Armenia Prima the name of Armenia Secunda, without altering, however, the established ecclesias- tical organization, so that Berissa remained a suiTra- gan see of Sebasteia. Among its bishops may be mentioned Thomas, who was present at the fifth oecumenical council, in 553 (Mansi, IX, 175), and another at the sixth in 680 (ibid., XI, 676). It appears still later in the "Notitiae Epi,scopatuum" as .suffragan to Sebasteia, and its name is wTitten sometimes Briplaffri , sometimes Bepio-o-Tj; Mcp/crcri; and K-qplairri are merely pateographical mistakes. Herissa was a Latin bishopric as late as the fifteenth rontury, when Paul II appointed the Franciscan l.ibertus de Broehun to succeed the deceased bishop, John (Wadding, Annales Minorum, VI, 708).

Lequien, Oriens Christ., I, 433; III, 1071; Gams, Series episcop., 440; Ramsay, Hist. Geogr. of Asia Minor, 329.

L. Petit.

Beristain y Martin de Souza, Jost Mariano, Mexican bibliograplier, b. in Puebla, Mexico, 22 May, 1756; d. at Mexico, 23 March, 1817. He went to .Spain and spent some time in the family of the former Bishop of Puebla. then Archbishop of Toledo. Returning to Mexico (1811) he was made Archdeacon of the Metropolitan church of Mexico (1813), and was afterwards its Dean. Beristain was a secular priest who had made thorough studies at Mexico and perfected them in Spain under the most favour- able circumstances. He wrote a niunber of treatises, some of them on economic subjects, but hardly any were published, the manuscripts being mostly lost through carelessness in sending them to Europe. His great work is the " Biblioteca hispano-americana septentrional," the last part of which was published after his death. For this he used as a basis the "Biblioteca mexicana" of Bishop Juan Jos(5 de Egui- ara y Eguren of which only the first volume (as far as "J") appeared in print. Beristain at first intended to republish Eguiara, completing the alphabet by means of sketches and notes left by the author, but, as he proceeded to carry out the idea, he found that it would be preferable to compose an independ- ent bibliography, incorporating in it the material Eguiara had collected. The "Biblioteca" of Beris- tain is, thus far, the most complete work on the subject that exists, but it contains many errors in names and dates. Still, if we take into account the time when he wrote, and the great obstacles he had to overcome in the shape of distances from sources and their frequent inaccessibility, it must be con- sidered a monumental work and, up to this day, the principal source of knowledge of the bibliography of Mexico and Central America.

AutobioQraphy in the Biblioteca hispano-americana. septen- trional (Me.xiro, 1816-19); Diccionario universal de Historia y Geografia (Mexico, 1853), I; Ycazbalceta, Bibliotecas de Eguiara y de Beristain; Memorias de la academia Mexicana (Mexico, 1878), 1.

Ad. F. Bandelier. Berlage, Anton, dogmatic theologian, b. 21 De- cember, 1805, at Milnster, Westphalia; d. there, 6 December, 1881. He studied philosophy and theology in the same city, after completing his course at the Gymnasium, and proceeded to the University of Bonn in 1826. Esser, at Miinster, and especially Hermes, at Bonn, led him to such speculations in theology as would have proved detrimental, had he not prosecuted his studies at Tubingen, during 1829 and 1830. under Drey, Hirscher, and Mohler, who in- fluenced him by their historic method, thus saving him from the danger of philosophical systems then prevalent in Germany. He graduated as Doctor of Tlu'ology at the University of Munich while yet a

deacon, and soon after began his long career as pro- fessor in the Academy of Miinster, liis native town, where he taught till his death. In 1832 he was ordained priest without ever having taken a course in any ecclesiastical seminary. His first book, "Apologetik der Kirche", was published in 1835, and favourably noticed by Protestant critics. He was appointed, first, associate professor, then regular professor, lecturing on apologetics and moral the- ology, but he ultimately restricted himself to dog- matic theology. His influence on the theological faculty of the Academy was so marked that its spirit may be said to be his. He became dean of the faculty in 1849 and, with Bisping, Schwane, and others, established the fame of his Alma Mater, ex- celling less in speculation than in argument and in positive exposition of dogma. Kihn numbers him among those who discussed theological matters philosophically, while Knopfler regards him as be- longing to the Tiibingen school. Briick, in his history of the Catholic Church in the nineteenth century, declares, " Berlage's writings excel in cor- rect expression of dogmatic principles, in elegance of language, and in clearness of diction". Those who have been his pupils say that as a lecturer he was concise, direct, and refined. He garnered the fruit of his studies in seven volumes, " Katholische Dogmatik", published 1839-64.

Kaulen in Kirchenler., s. v.; Briick, Geschichte der Kathol. Kirche im XIX. Jahrhnndert; Kihn, Encyclopadie und Mttho- dologie der Theologie, 404; Knopfleb, Lehrbuch der Kirchen- geschichte, 727; Litterarische Handweiser, 1881, no. 303.

Jos. Selinger.

Berland, Pierre, Archbishop of Bordeaux, b. 1375 in M6doc; d. 1457 at Bordeaux. Being of humble extraction, it was only through the liberality of friends that he was able to study the humanities at Bordeaux and canon law at Toulouse. Ordained priest, he was, first, secretary to the Archbishop of Bordeaux, then canon of St. Andrew's, and after- wards pastor of Soliac. In 1430 he was made Arch- bishop of Bordeaux. During his incumbency, he took a great interest in educational matters, founded the University of Bordeaux, endowed St. Raphael's College with twelve scholarships for indigent students, and in general won the character of a highly cultured and saintly prelate. His position as archbishop was most delicate. During the Hundred Years' War, the province of Guyenne had showed marked prefer- ence for the English Crown. On the other hand, the conduct of the English toward Joan of Arc, mar- tjTed shortly after Berland's preferment, coupled with the ambition of Henry VI, who had himself solemnly crowned King of France at Paris, could not meet the approval of the worthy archbishop. Twice he went north in an endeavour to bring his suzerain to greater moderation. Having failed in this, he transferred his allegiance to Charles VII, King of France, and was instrumental in bringing about the submission of the whole province to the French Crown, and with it the termination of the Hundred Years' War. Berland, old and infirm, resigned his see in 1457 and died shortly afterwards, venerated by his people. His remains were laid at rest in the vault of the cathedral, and his name is yet honoured at Bordeaux. The tower he caused to be built at St. Andrew's church in 1440, is called in his honour "Pey Berland" or "Pcre Berland" even to this day. Louis XI had obtained from Sixtus IV the appoint- ment of a commission with a view towards Berland's beatification, but the cause fell through at that prince's death. This fact, coupled with the venera- tion of the people, accoimts for the appellation "Bienheureux Berland" by which he is known.

Gallia Christ. (Paris, 1720), II; Moreri, Diet. hist. (Amster- dam, 1740): Comptes-rendiLS des travaux de la commissivn de3 monuments histonqu£S de la Gironde (Paris, 18,52).