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valescents; Dominican nuns, 4 houses with 95 sisters, carry on the St. Katharine Home, which includes a day-nursery and home for women servants, the St. Antonius Home, which includes a kindergarten and nursery for small children, a home for women serv- ants, and an institution of visiting nurses for the sick and poor, the Maria-Victoria Sanatorium, a hospital and institution for visiting-nurses for the sick and poor, and the St. Vincent Ferrer Home, a dispensary and home of nurses for the sick and poor and a home for women servants; the Grey Sisters, 7 houses with 137 sisters, have in charge 4 dispensaries and homes for visiting-nurses, St. Joseph's Hospital, and the St. Afra Home, which includes a rescue and orphan asylum, a home for women servants, and a creche; these sisters are also the nurses in 2 garrison hospitals. The Sisters of St. Mary, 58 sisters in 4 houses, 1 of which is in Berlin-Rixdorf, conduct the Hospital of St. Mary, 3 homes for visiting-nurses, and a house- keeping and needlework school combined with a kindergarten. The Sisters of St. Joseph, 13 sisters in 1 house, conduct a hospice or boarding-home for single women and young girls, a boarding-school where housekeeping is taught, and a house for re- treats. St. Joseph's Orphan Asylum, housing 200 children, is conducted by ladies, not professed re- ligious, who lead a kind of conventual life. Taking these and other Catholic institutions together, there are in Berlin proper 4 Catholic hospitals, 12 dis- pensaries and homes for visiting-nurses, 4 institutions for convalescents, 3 institutions for the care of small children, 9 day-nurseries, 5 homes for children of school-age, 3 hospices for young men, 6 hospices, or boarding-homes, for ladies — for self-supporting women who are bookkeepers, telephone employees, and the like — 8 homes for girls who are out of employment, 7 housekeeping and needlework schools, 3 orphan asylums and institutions for first communicants, 1 rescue home for girls.

Associations. — There is much activity among the Catholic societies of Berlin. In 1907 the religious associations were: 21 brotherhoods and confraterni- ties of the Rosary; 9 societies of the Childhood of Jesus; 8 societies of Christian mothers; 7 confra- ternities of the Holy Family; 7 altar societies for the making of vestments; 11 St. Charles Borromeo so- cieties; 9 societies for collecting funds, especially for the Boniface associations; 12 sodalities of the B. V. M., 10 youths' or St. Aloysius sodalities. Among the local charitable a.ssociations are: the Catholic charity organization of Berlin and its suburbs, an as.'iocia- tion of all the Catholic benevolent institutions, en- dowments, and societies of Berlin and its environs; Societies of St. Vincent de Paul, including 16 con- ferences for men and 16 conferences for women; the St. Hedwig's women's association; the society of the B. V. M. for the protection of girls; 4 societies for the care of lying-in women; the Catholic burial association; the society for the care of the Catholic deaf and dumb of Berlin, its environs, and the whole delegature. The most important associations in connexion with the various callings are: the Catholic Journeymen's Union, having a building of its own; the Catholic Apprentices' Union; the Master-Work- men's Union; 13 Catholic workmen's unions, with about 2800 working-men members, which belong to the district organization for Berlin; 11 a.ssociations, having 1.500 members, which belong to the Berlin district organization, and are composed of working- women, unmarried, and married women; the unions of the organized Catholic Workingmen's associa- tions (28); the Christian unions, 32 groups with over 4000 workingmcn members; the Catholic bvisiness men's society with 400 members; 2 societies of Cath- olic male and female teachers; 9 associations of Catholic students; 2 Philister societies. Among the political associations should be named; the People's

Union of Catholic Germany with about 4000 mem- bers; 13 organized groups in Berlin proper of the Centre Party; the Windthorst Union. Besides these there are some 20 singing, and church-choir, societies, and about 25 social societies. The most important of the 6 Catholic papers are: "The Germania", and the "Markische Zeitung".

Streckfuss, Berlin im 19. Jahrh. (Berlin, 1867-69); lotiu, eOO Jahre Berliner Gesch. (5th ed., Berlin, 1900); Schwebel, Gesch. der Stadt Berlin (Berlin, ISSS); Geiger, Berlin 1688- 18J,0 (Berlin, 1893-94); Holtze, Gesch. der Stadt Berlin (Tubingen, 1906); Cortain, Dae kathol. Berlin (Berlin. 1906); Amiliche Fiihrer durch die fnrstbischofliche Delegaiur (Berlin,

Joseph Lins.

Berlioz, Hector, French composer, b. at La Cote Saint-Andr^, near Grenoble, 11 December, 1803; d. at Paris, 8 March, 1869. His father, a physician, wished Hector to follow his own profession, and for that purpose sent him to the Medical School in Paris. Young Berlioz soon changed the dissecting room for the library of the Conservatoire, where he sought to acquaint himself with the scores of the masters of music. Heretofore his musical studies had been con- fined to a rudimentary knowledge of the flute and of the guitar. After studying harmony with Lesveur for a few months, Berlioz composed a mass, which was performed in the church of St. Roch. Being ad- mitted to the Conservatoire in 1823, be became noted not only for his great talent, but also for his rebellion against academic traditions. For the pure classicism of Cherubini, the head of the school, he had no respect, nor did he ever learn to understand and appreciate Palestrina, Handel, or Bach. Bent on giving expres- sion to his teeming ideas in his own fashion, Berlioz, like the romanticists in literature, proceeded by vio- lating or ignoring every established rule. As a con- sequence he never fully mastered the various forms of composition. With his "Fantastic Symphony", a cantata called "La mort de Sardanapale" which won for him the "Pri.x de Rome" (carrying with it a five years' pension), and a number of lesser works, Ber- lioz laid the foundation of the new school of composi- tion which is known as the scliool of programme music. It is the endeavour of composers of this school to express by means of music definite ideas and moods and even to relate definite events. Al- though Berlioz has written a number of works on liturgical texts, hardly any of them have the litur- gical character. His "Requiem", written for double chorus, an enormous orchestra, four military ijands, and organ, suggests Michelangelo in its gigantic con- ception. W'hile it strikes terror into the heart of the hearer, it does not inspire devotion. A "Te Deum" is built on equally large scale, and is more notable for its pomp and splendour tlian for its prayerfulness. Although Berlioz was a child of his time and in his music gave expression to every passion of man, he did not lose the Catholic sense, as is shown by the attraction liturgical texts had for him, and also by numerous other traits. Thus in his "Damnation de Faust" he sends Faust to eternal perdition accom- panied, by most gruesome music, instead of ulti- mately saving him in accordance with the pantheistic creed of Goethe. Berlioz is one of the most striking examples of modern subjectivism, and the lunncrous works ho has left behind — symphonies with and witli- out chorus, operas, an oratorio, "The Childhood of Christ", songs, choruses, etc. — give us an idea of what he might have been had he remained faithful to Catholic ideals.

Berlioz, Mem&ires; Ambros, Bunte Blatter; Julien, Hector Berlioz (Paris, 1888); Hippeau, Berlioz, Vhomme et I'artiste (Paris, 1888).

Joseph Otten.

Bemal, Agostino, Spanisli theologian, b. at Ma- gallon in Aragon in 1587; d. at Saragossa, 13 Sep-