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BERNARD


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BERNARD


ScHULTE, Die Geschichle der Quellen, II. 118. 119; Laurin, Introductio in Corpus Jur. Can. (Freiburg, 1889), III: Hurter, Nomendator, IV col. 192. ANDREW B. MeeHAN.

Bernard of Luxemburg, Dominican theologian, controversialist, and Inquisitor of the Archdioceses of Cologne, Mainz, and Trier; b. at Strassen near Cologne; d. at Cologne, 5 October, 1535. He studied at the latter place where he entered the Order of Preachers, received the baccalaureate at Louvain, 1499, and was appointed Master of Students at Co- logne, 1505, 1506. In 1507 he became Regent of Studies at Louvain; fellow of the college of Doctors at Cologne, in 1516; and served twice as Prior of Cologne. As the author of the "Catalogus liiereti- corum", he has been described as somewhat lacking in critical judgment; but he was otherwise a safe and indefatigable defender of the Faith against the heretics of his time. His important works are: "Catalogus haereticoruni omnium ", etc. (Erfurt,


to devote himself to their conversion. For forty- two years he continued to preach the Gospel to these people and carried the light of faith even into many cantons of Lombardy, effecting numerous conversions and working many miracles.

For another reason, however, Bernard's name will forever be famous in history. Since the most ancient times there was a path across the Pennine .A.lps leading from the valley of Aosta to the Swiss canton of Valais, over what is now the pass of the Great St. Bernard. This pass is covered with per- petual snow from seven to eight feet deep, and drifts sometimes accumulate to the height of forty feet. Thougli the pass was extremely dangerous, especially in the springtime on account of avalanches, yet it was often used by French anil German pilgrims on their way to Rome. For the convenience and pro- lection of travellers St. Bernard founded a monastery and hospice at the highest point of the pass. S.OOO


Thk Hospice ol

1522; Cologne, 1523; Paris. 1.524); "Concilium generale malignantium ", etc. (152S); " De ordinibus militaribus ", etc. (Cologne, 1527).

QuETiF-EcHARD. ticript. Ord. Fried (Paris, 1721), II, 9,3; Paulhs in Der Kalholik (Mainz, 1897), XVI, 166-171: Man- DONNET in Diet, de theol. ealh. (Paris, 1903), 788; Hurter, Nomendator (Innsbruck, 1906), II, 1251.

J. R. VoLZ.

Bernard of Menthon, Saint, b. in 923, probably in the castle Menthon near Annecy, in Savoy; d. at Novara, 1008. He was descended from a rich, noble family and received a thorough education. He re- fused to enter an honourable marriage proposed by his father and decided to devote himself to the ser- vice of the Church. Placing himself under the di- rection of Peter, Archdeacon of Aosta, under whose guidance he rapidly progressed, Bernard was or- dained priest and on account of his learning and virtue was made Archdeacon of Aosta (966), having charge of the government of the diocese under the bishop. Seeing the ignorance and idolatry still prevailing among the people of the Alps, he resolved


feet above sea-level, in the year 962. .\ few years later he established another hospice on the Little St. Bernard, a mountain of the Graian Alps, 7,076 feet above sea-level. Both were placed in charge of .\ugustinian monks after pontifical approval had been obtained by him during a visit to Rome.

These hospices are renowned for the generous hospitahty extended to all travellers over the Great and Little St. Bernard, so called in honour of the founder of these charitable institutions. At all seasons of the year, but especially during heavy snow-storms, the heroic monks accompanied by their well-trained dogs, go out in search of \ictims who may have succumbed to the severity of the weather. They offer food, clothing, and shelter to the unfortunate travellers and take care of the dead. They depend on gifts and collections for sustenance. At present, the order consists of about forty members, the majority of whom hve at the hospice while some have charge of neighbouring parishes.

The last act of St. Bernard's life was the reconcilia-