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BERNWARD


513


BERCEA


the battle of Bleichfeld. About the same time he entered the Benedictine Abbey of St. Blasien in the Black Forest near Schaffhausen, and in 1091 the Abbey of All Saints in the city itself, where he died. His name has ever been associated with the reforms of Gregory VII. The seventeen tracts that have reached us are mostly apologies for the pope's policy, or vindications of men who advocated or enforced it in Germany. Chief among these are: "De prohibenda sacerdotum incontinentia", written against the married clergy; " De danmatione schis- maticorum", wherein he justified the pope's con- demnation of that abuse; "Apologeticus super ex- communicationem Gregorii VII", a defence of the pope's excommunication of Henry IV and his par- tisans. Bernold is the author of a chronicle (Mon. Germ. Hist., Script., V) which is still highly esteemed. The latter part is a terse record of contemporary events by a knowing and intelligent observer. Dom Morin has shown (Revue Benedictine, VIII, 385-39.5) that Bernold is the author of the "Micro- logus", an important medieval liturgical treatise. Several other works are ascribed to him, but without sufficient evidence.

Strelau. Leben and Werke des Monches Bernold von Sanct- Blasien (Jena. 1889); ScHDLTZEN, De Berlholdi et Bemoldi ehronieU (Bonn, 1867); Peyret, Bernold de Constance: La Reforms de Saint Grigoire VII (Saint-Etienne. 1904); Pertz in Mon. Germ. Hist., Script., V; Thaner, ibid., II; Wattenbach, Deutsehlands Geschichtsquellen im Mittelalter (Berlin, 1877), II,

Thos. M. Schw'ertner.

Bemward, Saint, thirteenth Bishop of Hildes- heim, Germany, b. about the middle of the tenth century; d. 20 November, 1022. He claimed descent from a noble Saxon family, which counted among its members men of distinction in Church and State. His grandfather was Athelbero, Coimt Palatine of Saxony. Ha\ing lost his parents at an early age, he came under the care of his uncle Volkmar, Bishop of Utrecht, who entrusted his education to Thangmar, the pious and learned director of the cathedral school at Heidelberg. Under this mas- ter, Bernward made rapid prog- ress in Christian piety as well as in the sciences and in the liberal and even mechanical arts. He became very proficient in mathematics, painting, architec- ture, and particularly in the manufacture of ecclesiastical vessels and ornaments of silver and gold. He completed his studies at Mainz, where he was ordained priest by Archbishop Willigis. Chancellor of the Em- pire (975-1011). He declined a valuable preferment in the diocese of his uncle. Bishop Volkmar, and chose to remain with his grandfather, Athel- bero, to comfort him in his old age. Upon the death of the latter, in 987, he became chap- lain at the imperial court, and was .shortly afterwards appointed by the Empres.s-Regent Theo- phano, tutor to her son Otto III, then six years of age. The youthful emperor is known to CANDCrrT?cK h'ly'^ been a learned and re-

ligious pnnce, lor wnicri he was indebted in no small degree to his instructor.

Bernward remained at the imperial court until 993, when he was elected Bishop of Hildesheim. His long episcopate of nearly thirty years was prolific of great results for the Diocese of Hildesheim. Thangmar, his former tutor, who subsequently became his biographer.


describes in eloquent terms, how the saint, after per- forming his episcopal functions in the cathedral, was wont to visit the various workshops connected with the cathedral school, and with his own hands manu- factured gold and silver vessels for the enrichment of the altars. Under his direction arose numerous churches and other edifices, including even fortifica- tions for the defence of his episcopal city against the invasions of the pagan Normans. As e\'idences of his skill in the practice of the mechanical arts there are still preserved in Hildesheim a cross of rich and exquisite workmanship, known as the "Bernward Cross", the famous Bernward column, with winding reUefs representing scenes from the life of Christ,


two bronze doors of the Cathedral of Hildesheim, shomng Scriptural scenes, and two candlesticks symbolic of Christ, the light of the world. A monu- ment of his zeal and skill is St. Michael's abbey- church at Hildesheim — now Protestant — one of tlie most magnificent basilicas in Germany. His knowl- edge and practice of the arts were wholly employed in the service of the Church. A man of extraordinary piety, he was much given to prayer and the practice of mortification. Shortly before his death in 1022 he had himself invested with the Benedictine habit. He was canonized by Pope Celestine III in 1193. His feast occurs on 20 November.

Slimmen aus Maria Laach (1885), XXVIII; Gfrorer, Papst Gregor VII, V, XXXIII, LIV; Kuhn, Allgemeine Kimst-Geschichte, XIII.

J. A. BiRKHAEUSER.

Beroea 0ater, BERRHtEA, Beroie, and Beroe), a titular see of Macedonia, at the foot of Mount Ber- mios, now Doxa; it still preserves its ancient name, pronounced Veria by the Greeks (Turkish Kara- Feria, Slav Ber). The Romans captured it after the battle of Pydna (168 b. c.) and from 49 to 48 Pompey took up his winter quarters there (Plutarch. Pomp. (54). In its Jewish .synagogue St. Paul preached successfully (Acts, xvii, 10, 13); on with- drawing he left at Beroea his disciples Silas and Timothy. Onesinms, formerly Philemon's slave, was its first bishop according to the Apostolic Con- stitutions (VII, 46). At the time of the last partition