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later Middle Ages at Constantinople and in the Balkan States. Doctrinal Principles. — The admis- sion of a twofold creative principle, one good, the other evil, formed the basis of the doctrinal system of the Bogomili, as of all Manichsan sects. Originally, they seem to have claimed eternity for these two principles, but their teaching in its fuller development was less dualistic. God the Father, according to them, had a human appearance but was incorporeal. He had two sons, the first-born, Satanael, and the younger, Jesus Christ or Michael. Satanael, though seated at the right hand of the Father and endowed with creative power, rebelled and was, with some of the angels, his followers, east out of heaven. He created a second heaven and a second earth, and formed man out of earth and water. Being unable to give him a living spirit, he besought the Father to bestow life on this new creation, which would be their common prop- erty. God consented and thus man is the pro- duction of two creators. Eve, created in a similar manner, was seduced by Satanael. In punish- ment of this sin, Satanael lost his creative power, but retained sway over his own creation and strove successfully for the ruin of man. To save mankind, God sent His second son, Jesus, who penetrated the right ear of Mary and took from her the semblance of a human body; indeed, everything material in Him was merely appearance. Jesus vanquished Satanael, who lost his divine name El, and was henceforth called Satan. His place in heaven was now occupied by his conqueror. The Holy Ghost was sent forth, but dwells only in the Bogomili. Both He and Jesus will ultimately be absorbed by the Father, the only surviving person in God. The sect rejected the Old Testa- ment, except the Psalter and the Prophetical books. Instead of baptism by water, it admitted only a spiritual baptism; it denied the Real Presence in the Eucharist, condemned marriage, rejected images, and prohibited the eating of meat.

History. — The name of the Bogomili has been traced by some to Bog ^[ihii (God have mercy), a formula of prayer believed to have been in fre- quent use among them; others have sought its origin in Boqomil (beloved of God), which is also said to have been the name of a prominent repre- sentative of their doctrine in the tenth century. Other names were also applied to the members of the sect by its adversaries; but they called them- selves Christians. The Bogomili probably de- veloped from the Euchites and, although they existed previously, came into prominence in the twelfth century. They are first mentioned by name in 1115 at PhilippopoHs (European Turkey). More definite knowledge regarding them was obtained when their leader Basil, monk and physician, who had surrounded himself with twelve apostles, be- came kno-rni at Constantinople to the emperor Alexius I, Comnenus (1081-1118). The latter cleverly obtained from Basil a frank exposition of the doctrine of the sect. Having received this information, he demanded from the leader and those of his followers who could be seized a re- tractation of their errors. Some complied with this demand and were released; others remained obstinate and died in prison Basil alone was condemned to death (1118) and burned. Vigorous as the repression was, it did not suppress the heresy. A synod of Constantinople (1140) ordered the destruction of writings propagating the errors of the sect; in 1143, two bi.shops of Cappadocia were deposed for embracing its tenets; and the favour extended to one of its adherents, the monk Niphon, caused the deposition of Cosmas, Patriarch of Constantinople (1147). The Patriarch Germanus (1221-39) continued to combat the pernicious

doctrines; new condemnations were issued by the synods of Constantinople in 1316 and 1325. The Bogomili, however, remained until the conquest of the Balkan States by the Mussulmans in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.

EuTHTMius Zyg-\benus, PaTiopIm Dogmatica in P. G., CXXX, 1289-1332; Anna Comnena, Alexias, ed. Reifferacheid (Leipzig. 1884), II. 294 sqq.: Dollinger. Beitrdge zur Sekten- gesch. {Munich, 1890), I, 34-31; Leg eh. L'heresie dea Bogomiles in Rev. den quest, hist. (1870), VIII, 479-517; Funk in Kirchen- lei., s. v.; Vernet in Diet, de thiol, calh., II, 926-930; Her- GENRoTHER-KlRSCH, Kirchengesck. (Freiburg, 1905), II, 549-552.

N. A. Weber.

Bogota (BoGOTENSis), Archdiocese op Santa Fe de. — The city of Bogotd, capital of the republic of Colombia, is situated on a plateau 8700 feet above the sea level, at the western base of the Guadalupe and Monserrat mountains, in the eastern Cordillera of the Andes. High mountains surround this plateau on all sides except to the southwest, where the River Funcha cuts its way to Magdalena, forming, a few miles from the city, the falls of Tequendana 475 feet in height. Two other rivers, the S. Francisco and the S. Augustino, divide the city. Bogotd was settled by the Spaniards in 1538 and became, in 1598, the capital of Nueva Grenada, which was then a viceregal province, and in 1819, when Colombia became independent of Spain, Bogotd was made the capital of the new republic. Bogotd is a quaint city, its lack of easy communication with other foreign cities having perpetuated its ancient Spanish char- acter. Though the capital of the republic, it has a population of only 100,000 inhabitants.

The Archdiocese of Bogotd, the primatial see of Colombia, was created by Pope Pius IV in 1564. At first it had six suffragans, but, on account of the tremendous growth of the population of the diocese. Pope Leo XIII, in 1902, separated the Bishopric of Medellin from it, and erected it into a province. The actual suffragan sees of Bogota are: Antioquia (Antioquiensis), which was erected a bishopric by Pius VII, 31 August, 1804, re-erected by Pope Leo XII, 19 Januarj', 1829, suppressed in 1868, and re-established by Pius IX, 29 Januarj-, 1873. This bishopric contains 211,000 Catholics, 69 Protestants, 75 secular priests, and 80 churches and chapels. Ibague {Ibaguensis), of which no accurate statistics can be given, as the diocese has only lately been created. It was formerly, with the bishopric of Garzon, suffragan to the see of Tolima, and at the extinction of this see was assigned to the MetropoUtan of Bogota. It has for its territory the two pro\-ince3 of North and Central Colombia. Nueva Pamplona (Xeo-Pampilonen.'iis) , erected into a bishopric by Gregory XVI, 25 September, 1835. It contains 250,000 Catholics, 8 secular priests, 7 regular priests, and 46 churches and chapels. Socorro {de Succursu), erected as a bishopric bv Pope Leo XIII, 20 March, 1895, contains 230,000 Catholics. Tunja (Tunquen- sis), erected as a bishopric in July, 1880, by Pope Leo XIII, contains 350,000 Catholics, 10,000 pagans, 53 parishes, and 159 churches and chapels.

The religious orders of men represented in the Archdiocese of Bogota are: Jesuits, Franciscans, Augustinians, Salesians, and the Brothers of the Christian Doctrine. Those for women are: Sisters of Charity, of the Visitation, of the Good Shepherd Salesians, Dominicans, Carmelites, and the Little Sisters of the Poor. Most of these orders, especially those for men, have charge of the schools and colleges. There are in the archdiocese 1 seminary, 30 colleges and academies, 150 schools, and 14 hospitals.

KonversatioTLS-Lex. I, 1696; Battandier. Anmuiire pont. Cath. M. DE MOREIRA.

Bohemia (Germ. Bohmen, or formerly Boheim; Lat. Bohemia or Bojohemum), a cisleithan (i. e. west of the River Leitha) crown province of the Austro-