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responsibility for providing a proper burial-place falls on the civil community. But a parish com- munity or a church vestry cannot be compelled by the authorities to enlarge or lay out a church ceme- tery. If in the same community both a tow7i cemetery and a Catholic cemetery exist, the burial of the dead in the public cemeterj' is not obligatory, but every Catholic has the right to bury the mem- bers of his family in the Catholic cemetery. When a Catholic cemetery serves also for the burial of non-Catholics, a part of the cemetery is to be set apart for the exclusive use of the non-Catholic community. Where a part of a Catholic cemetery is used for non-Catliolic burial without the formal separation of the parts, the non-Catholic clergj-man must follow the regulations of the law; he may con- duct the burial -n-ith prayer and benediction, but there can be no singing nor address.

ScHlNDLER ed., Das sozutle Wirken der katholischen Kirche in Oesterreich (9 vols.); Landenbauer. Die Diozese Budweis (Vienna, 1S99): Schindler, Die Erzdibzese Prag (Vienna. 1902): Endler, Die Diozese Leitmeritz (Vienna. 1903): Benes, Die Diozese Koniggrdlz (Vienna, 1897): Kirchhoff ed.. Schematismen der DiozesejL Prag, Leitmeritz. Koniggrdtz, und Budweis in Ldnderkunde von Europa, Ft. I. 2d half: Supan, Oesterreich-U ngam (Vienna and Prague. 1889): Die dsterreich- ungarische Monarchie in Wort und Bild (1894-96): Bohmen (1894-96) 2 vols.: Mitteilungen des Vereines iur Gesehiehle der Deutschen in Bohmen, and the other publications of this society; Frind, Kirchengeschichte Bohmens (Prague. 1866-78); Id., Geschichte der Bischdfe und Erzbischofe von Prag (Prague, 1873): Gindely, Geschiehte des SO jdhrigen Krieges (Prague, 1882): Id., Geschichte der Gegenre formation.

Kahl Rlaar.

Bohemian Brethren (Moravian Brethren, or Unit.\s Fratru.m). — Definition and Doctrinal Position. — Bohemian Brethren, Moravian Brethren are the current popular designations of the Unitas Fratrum founded in Bohemia in 1457, renewed by Count Zinzendorf in 1722, and still active in our own day. Placing life before creeds, the Moravian Church seeks "to exemplify the living Church of Christ con- stituted of regenerated men and women, while it affords a common meeting-point for Christians who apprehend dogmas variously". Personal faith in the crucified Saviour constitutes the chief foundation for the fellowship thus established. Scripture is the only rule of faith, but "nothing is posited as to the mode of inspiration, for this partakes of the mysteries which it has not pleased God to reveal ". The Trinity, the Fall, Original Sin, and "Total Depra-\-ity" are admitted, but "discussion about them is shunned". The Love of God manifested in Christ — \\ithout theories about the mode — is the centre of Mo- ravian belief and practice. Justification by faith alone and the necessity of regeneration "are posited as facts of personal experience". Sanctifying grace, the need of prayer, and other public means of grace, a complete ritual, a strict discipline, "the orders of the ministry with no conception of the functions of the episcopate", i. e. bishops ordain, but the episco- pal office implies no further riding or administrati\'e power (see infra in regard to Zinzendorf), Baptism and the Lord's Supper as the only sacraments, and the common Christian eschatology: Resurrection, Judgment, Heaven, Hell; such are the tenets from which Moravians are expected not to depart, whilst they are allowed to speculate about them on Scrip- tural lines with entire liberty.

History of the Ancient Unitas Fr.^trum (1457- 1722). — The Bohemian Brethren are a link in a chain of sects beginning with Wyclif (1324-84) and coming down to the present day. The ideas of the English- man found favour with Hus, and Bohemia pro\'ed a better soil for their growth than England. Both Wyclif and Hus were moved by a sincere desire to reform the Church of their times; both failed and, without intending it, became the fathers of new heretical bodies — the Lollards and the Hussites. The former were persecuted out of existence in Eng-

land by Catholic rulers; the latter prospered in Bo- hemia, thanks to royal and national support. The burning of John Hus at the stake for his stubborn adherence to the condemed doctrines of Wyclif (at Constance, 6 July, 1415) was considered an insult to the faith of the Bohemian nation, which, since its first conversion to Christianity, had never swerved from the truth. The University of Prague came boldly forward to ^•indicate the man and his doc- trines; the party which hitherto had worked at re- forming the Church from within now rejected the Church's authority and became the Hussite sect. Di\-isions at once arose amongst its members. Some completely set aside the authority of the Church and admitted no other rule than the Bible; others only demanded Communion under both kinds for the laity and free preaching of the Gospel, vdih. some minor reforms. The former, who met for worship at "Mount Tabor", were called Taborites; the latter received the name of Calixtines, i. e. the party of the Chalice. As long as they had a common enemy to fight they fought together under the leadership of that extraordinary man, John Trocznowski, kno-mi as Zizka (the one-eyed), and for fully fifteen years proved more than a match for the imperial armies and papal crusaders sent to crush them. Peace was at length obtained, not by force of arms, but by skilful negotiations which resulted in the "Compac- tata of Basle" (30 November, 1433). The compact was chiefly due to the concessions made by the Calixtine party; it found little or no favour with the Taborites. The discontent led to a feud which ter- minated at the Battle of Lippau (30 May, 1434) with the death of Procopius, the Taborite leader, and the almost total extinction of his party. The small remnant, too insignificant to play a role in politics, withdrew into private life, devoting all their energies to religion. In 1457 one section formed itself into a separate body under the name of the "Brethren's Union" {Unitas Fratrum), which is now generally spoken of as the Bohemian Brethren. Their con- temporaries coined for them several opprobrious designations, such as Jamnici (cave-dwellers) and Pivnicnici (beerhouse men), Bunzlau Brethren, Picards (corrupted to Pickarts), etc.

The originator of the new sect was a certain Gregory, a nephew of the leading Calixtine preacher, Roky- zana, whose mind was imbued with the conviction that the Roman Church was helplessly and hope- lessly corrupt. Gregory therefore decided to found a new Church in accordance with his uncle's and his own ideas of what a perfect Church should be. Through Rokyzana's influence he obtained leave from the governor George \on Podiebrad to organize a community in the -i-iUage of Kunwald near Senften- berg. Michael, the parish priest of Senftenberg, and Matthias, a farmer of Kunwald, joined Gregory, and soon the community counted several thousand mem- bers. Their distinguishing tenets at this early period were rather vague: abolition of aU distinctions of rank antl fortune, the name of Cliristian being the one all-sufficient dignity; abolition of oaths, of mili- tary service, etc. Ciovernor von Podiebrad kept a vigilant eye on the growing community. In 1461 he had Gregory and several other persons arrested on suspicion of reviving the heresies of the Taborites. The accused admitted that they did not believe in the real presence of Christ in "the Holy Eucharist, but had partaken of the bread and ^-ine at their nocturnal meetings as of common food. They were set free, but, to avoid further interference, Gregory and his companions fled into the Lordship of Reiche- nau, where they lived hidden in the mountains. There, in 1464, was held a secret assembly consisting of Brethren from Bohemia and Mora\'ia, who ac- cepted as basis of their creed the doctrine that justi- fication is obtained through faith and charity and