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BOISGELIN
BOISGELIN
624

which Sisters of the Holy Names, from Portland, Oregon, took charge. Father J. M. Cataldo, S.J., made unsuccessful advances to the Nez Percys in 1867. Recalled by them in 1S72, he soon baptized three hundred of these fierce warriors. In 1876, Father Gazzoli drew many to the Faith by his re- markable medical skill. Interrupted by the Nez Perces war (1877), the work has since been success- fully carried on, Archbishop Seghers' \nsits in 1S79- 83 having given it a new impetus. The Holy See, 3 March, 1868. established Idaho as a vicariate Apostohc and placed it in charge of the Right Rev. Louis Lootens who was consecrated Titular Bishop of Castabala, at San Francisco, 9 August, 1868. Bom in Bruges, Belgium, 17 March, 1827, he emi- grated to Victoria in 1852, and spent nine years as a missionarj- in Vancouver Island and six in Cali- fornia. The new vicar Apostolic reached Idaho in Januarj-, 1869, and took up his abode at Granite Creek. In 1870 the first Catholic church was erected in the capital by Fathers Mespli^ and Poulin, on a site donated by John A. O'Farrell, Col. A. St. Clair, commander of Fort Bois^, being the priests' main helper in this laborious work. It was scarcely dedicated, however, when it was burned down. Bishop Lootens resigned 16 July, 1875, and died 13 Januarj', 1898. He was succeeded by the second \icar Apostolic, the Right Rev. Alphonsus Joseph Glorieux. consecrated at Baltimore, Marjdand, titular Bishop of ApoUonia, 19 April, 1885. He found in his territory about 2.500 CathoKcs with ten churches attended by two secular and several Jesuit priests. When Boise was made an episcopal see he was transferred thither as its first bishop, 26 August, 1893.

The diocese has fifty-four- churches and chapels, 34 priests, 7 academies, and 5 parochial schools, with 950 pupils; 2 industrial and reform schools ■nith 150 inmates: 3 hospitals and a Catholic population of about 15,000, mostly of Irish and German racial affiUations, a sprinkling of Canadians, and 4,000 Indians. On 11 November, 1906. the comer-stone of a fine cathedral was laid near the new episcopal residence. Among the pioneer priests who did splendid missionary work here were Fathers L. Ver- haag. E. Nattini, F. Hartleib. AV. Hendrickx. and C. Van der Donckt, the last being the first priest or- dained for Idaho in 1887, and stationed at Pocatello since June, 1888. The academies and parochial schools are conducted respectively by the Sisters of the Holy Cross, of St. Joseph, of the Visitation, of Charity, of Providence, of St. Benedict, and of the Immaculate Heart of Slarj'.

Van der Donckt, The Founders of the Church in Idaho in the Ecrks. ff.iMTT. XXXII, Nos. 1,2,3; She.*. Hist.Calh. Ch. «n V. iS. (New York. 1S94); Reuss. Biographical Encycl. of the Cath. Hierarchy (Milwaukee, Wisconsin).

C. Van der Donckt.


Boisgelin, Jean de Diett-Ratmond de Cuce de, French prelate and cardinal, b. of an ancient family at Rennes in Brittany, 27 Februarj-, 1732; d. 22 August, 1804. Destined from his early youth to the ecclesias- tical state, he achieved remarkable success in his studies. The death of his elder brother made him the head of his family, but, giving up his birthright, he consecrated his life to the Church. First made Vicar-General of Pontoise. he was in 1765 raised to the Bishopric of Lavaur. and in 1770 to the archiepis- copal See of Aix in Provence. In this last position he won for himself the name of skilful administrator and princely benefactor. Provence owes to him the digging of a canal bearing his name, several works of pubUc utility, such as a bridge at Lavaur and educational institutions for poor children. When in a time of scarcity and of political ferment, at the outset of the French Revolution, Aix was threatened with violence and famine, the archbishop bj' his


firmness, great ascendancj-, wisdom, and generosity, proved its saviour. The mob had pillaged the pubUc granaries, and had answered by insults the summons of authority; Boisgelin assembled the magistrates, chief citizens, and merchants, dispelled their fears, and prevailed upon these men to procure for Aix an abundant supply of grain, towards the pajTnent of which he contributed one hundred thousand hvres. He issued a pastoral letter to his clergj-. asking them to urge the people to restore to the granaries the grain they had carried away. Where law had failed, rehgion and piety triumphed. The people obeyed and, flocking to the cathedral, expressed in touching terms their gratitude to the archbishop who was so absolutel3' devoted to their welfare.

Boisgelin was elected to represent the higher clergy of his province at the States-General, 1789. In that famous assembly his practical pohtical wisdom and moderation appeared on many occasions; he voted, in the name of the ciergj*. for the union of the three orders, the abolition of feudal rights, and offered 400,000 livres to the public treasurj-; but he opposed the abolition of tithes and the confiscation of church property. His political sagacity and eloquence made him the recognized leader and spokesman of thirty bishops, his colleagues in the assembly. He spoke the language of liberty and that of religion with equal eloquence; he would have everj' citizen share in the estabUshment and main- tenance of the government, with his political rights as indestructible as liis natural and civic rights. The majority of the assembly voted for the civil constitution, a constitution subversive of the govern- ment of the Church, and of its discipline, a constitu- tion that denied the supreme jurisdiction of the pope, subjected ecclesiastics to the civil power, and decreed that all the members of the clergj', beginning with those in the assembly, should take the oath of alle- giance to the constitution, imder penalty of exile and the forfeiture of their salaries. This legislation placed the clergj- between two evils, schism and dishonour on one side, dire poverty, exile, if not death, on the other. Boldly and firmly Boisgelin rose to champion the cause of the Church: "Let the law", he exclaimed in the assembly, " leave us our honour and liberty: take back your salaries." It was he who wrote the famous "Exposition of Principles", signed by all except four of the bishops of France, condemning the Civil Constitution of the Clergy; it was he who in the name of his colleagues corres- ponded during two years with Rome, he who in a letter, dated 3 May, 1791, proposed to the bishops to lay their resignations at the feet of Pius VI; in 1801 he effectively made to Pius VII the sacrifice not accepted by Pius VI. When persecutions drove him out of France he went to England. In his answer to a letter from Edmund Burke in which the orator expressed his admiration for the spirit of disinterestedness and dignity of character of the French episcopacy, he complains that he is expelled from France in the name of that liberty he had in perfect faith contributed to establish, and under whose protection he hoped to end his days.

Boisgelin returned to France when Napoleon restored peace to the Church and to France by his Concordat, 15 July, 1801. In 1802, he was raised to the archiepiscopal See of Tours and soon after created cartiinal. Boisgelin who had displayed administrative qualities of a high order at Aix, was no less remarkable for his literarj' and oratorical talents. Simplicity, grace, and pathos characterize his eloquence. In 1776 he was chosen member of the French Academy. His works include: "Collec- tion de diverses pieces en vers" (1783); "L'art dr juger d'apres I'analogie des id^es" (1789); "Con- siderations sur la paix publique adress^es aux chefs de la Revolution" ^1791); "Exposition des principes