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south of Lake Titicaca. Over the highest peaks Boars the condor.

Government, the Church, and Education. — Bolivia, then the Spanish colony of Alto Peru, or Up- per Peru, declared its intention to achieve political independence 16 July, 1809, and actually became an autonomous republic 6 August, 1825, taking its name in honour of Simon Bolivar, its founder. The Con- stitution under which the republic is now governed dates from 28 October, 1880, and aims at a "unita- rian republican" polity. Under this Constitution the legislative power is vested in a Congress which comprises a Chamber of Deputies and a Senate, the former body consisting of 72 members elected by direct popular vote for terms of four years, the latter of 16 members also elected by direct popular vote, but for terms of si.x years. The executive power is vested in a president, elected by direct popular vote for a term of four years. The president, however, can exercise his authority only through his Cabinet, which con.sists of five .\li'nistros dc Estado, jointly responsible with him for all his official act.s. Under this chief executive the civil government of the country is carried on by prefects of Departments, ap- pointed by it and directly responsible to it, and they in turn have under their jurisdiction sub-prefects and Corregidores for the subdivisions of Departments. The revenue of the republic for 1905 was stated at 7,928,730 bolivianos (1 boUviano = 80.422 in United States currency).

By Article 2 of the Constitution of Bolivia, "The State recognizes and supports the Roman Apostolic Catholic religion, the public exercise of any other worship being prohibited, except in the colonies, where it is tolerated". For the support of Catholic worship in general the State pays the sum of 182,027 bolivianos (§76,815 U. S. currency), besides 14.000 bolivianos (.?5,908) for missions to the aboriginal tribes. There is one archbishopric, Sucre, or Char- cas, formerly La Plata, with 146 parishes, three col- leges of the Propagation of the Faith, and five monasteries. The suffragan bishoprics are: La Paz, with 102 parishes, and 5 monasteries; Cochabamba, with 69 parishes and 4 convents, and Santa Cruz, divided into 73 parishes. Both La Paz and Santa Cruz were erected into bishoprics in 1605, the Arch- bishopric of Charcas was founded 1609, and the Diocese of Cochabamba in 1847. Efforts are kept up to gather the unsettled tribes of the Amazon Basin into permanent settlements (reductions), a very slow and difficult task.

The legal status of marriage is thus summed up in Art. 99 of the Civil Code of Bolivia: "Matrimony being in the Republic elevated to the dignity of a sacrament, the formalities necessary for its celebra- tion will be the same as those which the Council of Trent and the Church have designated. " Bolivian law recognizes no divorce permitting re-marriage, and all questions arising between husband and wife can be decided only by the ecclesiastical tribunals.

Eth.vography. — The comparatively small pro- portion of whites among the Bohvian population makes of the Indian the numerically preponderant stock. The mestizos, while not disclaiming their partly white origin, sometimes stand, in the country and among the lower cla.sses in towns and cities, but slightly higher than the aborigines, being distin- guished from the latter mostly by the fact that they wear European costume. Of the Indians several linguistic stocks inhabit the country. The roaming tribes of the Amazon lowlands are neither numerous nor important enough to deserve mention here. But in the mountains two powerful stocks, seden- tary, agricultural, and pastoral ever since they have been known to the whites, form the working lower class of the people of Bolivia. These stocks are the Quichua and the Aymard. These two large tribes 11.^40

may, perhaps be about equally numerous. The- Quichua occupy southern Bolivia and the Andean districts adjacent to Lake Titicaca on the East;, the Aymard hold the upper valleys of the Andes, the West, and the centre. Physiologically, no great difference in tj-pe exists. They are, first of all, husbandmen, in fact they control agriculture. Nearly all agricultural lands being held by whites or mestizos, who do not themselves cultivate, but prefer to live in settlements following some trade or commerce, the Indians, who are settled every- where, take care of the fields. This they Oo, either in a kind of serfdom, living on the property and performing, also, some personal services for the pro- prietors, or, as Indian communities settled near the land, they have a tacit lease of it. The Indians organized in communities according to their primi- tive customs control the land, through their labour, virtually more than the owners, and thus remain a power in the republic, since they are the feeders of the people. Their serfdom is much more apparent, than real, for the masters depend upon them for subsistence. Some ahmentary plants in the high regions are potatoes, quinua, oca, etc., as well as- maize in districts suitable for its growth, with coarse beans (habas) and barley, the last two being of European origin. The Indians raise cattle for them- selves and sometimes for the landowners. Alf their farming is done in a primitive and very slovenly- way. Next to agriculture, transportation and



Cathedral at Copacabana

personal service in housework are also in the hands of the Indians. In fact their silent influence per- vades the whole of public and private life; their industrial methods are obsolete, and they resist improvement with the greatest tenacity.

As the Indian has maintained his primitive organi- zation with few changes, he might form a State- within the State, and thus become a grave danger to the whites. But as he never had any conception of a State, being, moreover, divided into autonomous or independent tribes, that danger is much dimin- ished. Neither the Aymard nor the Quichua could coalesce to form a homogeneous body. This they have shown ever since the Spanish occupation, and during the alarming of their attempted up- risings, such as that of 1781. They would Hke to return to their primitive condition of barbarism, but feel that, despite their vast superiority of num- bers, they are virtually powerless. In addition to these two principal Indian groups, the mountain districts still shelter the Uros, feeble remnants of a tribe dwelling among rushes and reeds, and com- paratively little known. Of the white population of Bolivia little need be said that is not apphcable