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BONA VENTURE


654


BONCOMPAGNI


Duns Scotus, owing largely to the prominence of the latter as champion of the Immaculate Con- ception in the disputes between the Franciscans and Dominicans. Sixtus V, howe\-er, founded a special chair at Rome for tlie study of St. Bona- venture; such chairs also existed in several uni- versities, notably at Ingolstadt, Salzburg, Valencia, and Osuna. It is worthy of note that the Capuchins forbade their Friars to follow Scotus and ordered them to return to the study of Bonaventure. The centenary celebrations of 1874 appear to have revived interest in the life and work of St. Bona- venture. Certain it is that since then the study of his WTitings has steadily increased.

Unfortunately not all of Bonaventure's WTitings have come dowTi to us. Some were lost before the invention of printing. On tlie other hand, several works have in the course of time been attributed to him which are not his. Such are the "Centiloquium", the "Speculum Disciplinae", which is probably the work of Bernard of Besse, Bonaventure's secretarj^; the rhythmical "Philomela", which seems to be from the pen of John Peckham; the "Stimulus Amoris" and the "Speculum B. M. V.", written respectively by James of Milan and Conrad of Saxony; "The Legend of St. Clare", which is by Thomas of Celano; the "Meditationes vitte Christi" composed by a Friar Minor for a Poor Clare, and the " Biblia pau- perum" of the Dominican Nicholas of Hanapis. Those familiar with the catalogues of European libraries are aware that no writer since the Middle Ages had been more widely read or copied than Bonaventure. The earliest catalogues of his works are those given by Salimbene (1282), Henry of Cdient (d. 1293), Ubertino of Casale (1305), Ptolemy of Lucca (1327) and the "Chronicle of the XXIV Cienerals" (1368). The fifteenth century saw no less than fifty editions of Bonaventure's works. More celebrated than any preceding edition was that published at Rome (1588-96) by order of Sixtus V (7 vols, in fol.). It was reprinted with but slight emendations at Metz in 1609 and at Lyons in 1678. A fourth edition appeared at Venice (13 vols, in 4to) 1751, and was reprinted at Paris in 1864. All these editions were ^'ery imperfect in so far as they in- clude spurious works and omit genuine ones. They have been completely superseded by the celebrated critical edition published by the Friars Minor at Quaracchi, near Florence. Any scientific study of Bonaventure must be based upon this edition, upon which not only Leo XIII (13 December, 1885) and Pius X (11 April, 1904). but scholars of all creeds have lavished the highest encomiums. Nothing seems to have been omitted which could make this edition perfect and complete. In its preparation the editors visited over 400 libraries and examined nearly 52,000 MSS. while the first volume alone ^•ontains 20,000 variant readings. It was com- menced by Father Fidelis a Fanna (d. ISSl) and ■completed by Father Ignatius Jeiler (d. 1904): ■"Doctoris Seraphici S. Bonaventura; S. R. E. Epis- copi Cardinalis Opera Omnia, edita studio et cura P. P. Collegii S. Bonaventura; in fol. ad Claras Aquas [Quaracchi] 1882-1902". In this edition the works of tlie .saint are distributed througli the ten volumes as follows: the first four contain his great "Com- mentaries on the Book of Sentences"; the fifth com- prises eight smaller scholastic works such as the " Brevilonuium " and ' Itinerarium"; the sixth and


iloq

seventli are devoted to his commentaries on Scrip- ture; the eighth contains his mystical and ascetic writings and works having special reference to the order; the ninth his sermons; whilst the tenth is taken up witli the index and a short sketch of the saint's life and writings by Father Ignatius Jeiler.

We do not possess any formal, contemporary biography of St. Bonaventure. That written by


the Spanish Franciscan, Zamorra, who flourished before 1300, has not been preserved. The references to Bonaventure's life contained in the works of Salimbene (1282), Bernard of Besse (c. 1380) Bl. Francis of Fabriano (d. 1322), AngeloClareno (d. 1337), Ubertino of Casale (d. 1338), Bartliolomew of Pisa (d. 1399) and the "Clironicle of the XXIV Generals" (c. 1368), are given in vol. X of the Quaracchi Edition (pp. 39-72).

Ada SS.. 3d ed., July, III, 776-S22; W.idding, Annales Min. (Rome, 1732), IV, passim: Idem, Script. Ori. Mi7i. (1650 ■). 61-81; Sbar.4LE.\, Supplementum (1806), 142-172, 726; G\SP\RE DA Monte Santo. Gesta e dottrina del seraf. dott. S. Bonaventura (2d ed., Florence. 1874); Berthacmier, Hisloire de S. Bonaventure (Paris, 1858); Mariani, S. Bonaventura (Florence. 1874); Marangoni, Vita di S. Bonaventura (Padua, 1874); IsiDORVS A BnscOMARi, S. Bonaventura, O. F. M. minister generalis (Rome, 1874); Anton. Maria da Vicenza, Vita di S. Bonaventura (Rome, 1874), German tr. Jeiler (Paderborn, 1874); Panfilo da Magliano, Storia compmdiosa di S Francesco e dei francescani (Rome, 1874), I, 619 and passim; Sket, Life of St. Bonaventure (London. 1889); Leo de Clarv, Lives of the Saints and Blessed of the Three Orders of St. Francis (Taunton, 1886), II, 466-490; Prosper de JIar- TiGNE, La scholastique et les traditions franciscaines (Paris, 1888), 77-153; Cherance, S. Bonaventure (Paris, 1899); and Sheets in Diet, de thiol, cath. (Paris, 1904), II, 962-986.

Among those who of recent years have written on Bonaven- ture's doctrine or special points of it are Mahgerie, Essai sur la phUosophie de S. Bonaventure (Paris, 1855); Van Loo, Specimen doctrina: . ... ad mentem S. Bonaventura (Louvam, 1856); Hollenberg, Sludien zu Bonaventura (Berlin, 1862); Fidelis a Fanna, Seraphici Doctoris. Bonaventura, doctnna de Romani Pontificis primatu et infallibilitate (Tiu-in, 1870); Idem, Ratio nova' colleclionis operum S. Bonaventura: (Turin, 1874); Marcellino da Civezza. Delia vera filosofia e delle dottrine del serafico dottore S. Bonaventura (Genoa, 1J74); LuDOVlcus A Castroplanio, Seraphicus Doctor S. Bona- Ventura in (Ecumenids cath. eccl. conciliis (Rome, 18741; FR\NClscrs Maria a Salerno, Delia poesia nel serafico dottore S. Borwvcntura (Genoa, 1874); Werner, Die Psychologie und Erkenntnisslehre des hi. Bonaventura (Vienna, 1876); Ant. M. A ViNCENTIA et Jo. A RuBINO. Lexicon Bonaventunanum philosophico-theologieum (Vienna, 1880); De human(E cognitionis ratione; anecdota qufvdam S. Bonaventurce et nonnullorum ipsius disdpulorum (Quaracchi. 1883); Baroni, La scuola franciscana guidata dal suo serafico dottore S. Bonaventura (Florence, 1886); Canali, Oratio super characteribus doctnna; Bonaventuriance (Piacenza, 1887); Jeiler. S. Bonaventura: prindpia de concursu Dei generali ad actiones causarum secun- darum (Quaracchi, 1887); Stateczny, Compendium htslona philosophia (Rome, 1898), 312, passim: Bisogno, S. Bonaven- tura e Dante (Milan, 1899); Evangeliste de Safnt-Beat, Le scraphin de I'ecole. etudes sur S. Bonaventure (Pans, 1900); ZoRZOLi. La gueslione di S. Bonaventura, De cognitionis hu- maruF suprema ratione. commentata e difesa (Turin. 1900); \ illa- nova, S. Bonaventura und das PapsUhum (Bregenz, 1902); RosATl. L'eloquenza cristiana in S. Bonaventura (Florence, 1903); Facin, Dissertatio de studio bonaventuriano (Quaracchi, 1902); S. Bonaventura, Doctor Seraphicus, disdpulorum S. Augustini alter princeps (Venice, 1904); Stockl. Handbook of the History of Philosophi/, tr. Finlat (Dublin, 1903). I. 402- 406; Turner. History of Philosophy (Boston, 1903). 329-335; Felder, Geschichte der uHssenschaftliehen Studien im Frands- kanerorden bis urn die Mitte des IS. Jahrhunderts (Freiburg, 1904), 215-227, passim: VlVES, Summula C ommentariorum Seraphid Doctoris, Bonaventura (Rome, 1905); de Wulf, Histoire de la philosophic medievale (2d ed., Louvain and Paris, 1905) 299-308; UEBERWEG-HErNZE, Grundnss der Geschichte der Philosophic (Berlin, 1905, 9th ed.), II, 279-286; Ubald D'ALENfON in Etudes Franciscaines (July, 1905), 91-102; Laurence, The Life and Writings of St. Bonaventure in The Franciscan Montlily (London, 1904-OH).

Paschal Robinson.

Bonaventure, Mary Stephen. See Nagpur, Diocese of.

Boncompagni, Balthasah, an Italian mathe- matician, b. at Rome, 10 May, 1821; d. 13 April, 1894. He was a member of the illustrious family to which had belonged Gregorj' XIII, the reformer of the calendar. He studied mathematics and physics un- der Santucci and became known as a prolific writer on mathematical and historical subjects. At an early age (1840) he contributed to the "Giornale Ar- cadico" biographical sketches of Father Joseph Calandrelli, director of the observatory of the Roman College after the suppression of the Society of Jesus, and his assistant Conti. These were followed by his "Recherches sur les integrales d^finies", which ap- peared in "Crelle's Journal" (Berlin). In 1846 the "Giornale Arcadico" published his "Studi intorno ad alcuni avanzamenti della fisica in Italia net secoli