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BORDEAUX


684


BORGESS


gregation has 200 houses, in different parts of the world. It includes the: Sisters of St. Joseph, who lia\e charge of asylums for orphans and working women; Sisters of the Immaculate Conception and Ladies of the Immaculate Conception, who conduct boarding-schools; Agricultural Sisters (Soeurs Agri- coles); Sisters of Hope, attendants on the sick; Con- templative Sisters (Sa'urs Solitaires); Sisters of St. Martha, for domestic service. In 1899, the following charitable and educational institutions were to be found in the Archdiocese of Bordeaux: 1 foundling hospital, 11 infant asylums, 66 infant schools, 2 children's infirmaries, 2 deaf-mute institutes for girls, 2 orphanages where farming is taught, 1 boys' and girls' orphanage, 34 girls' orphanages, 1 servants' guild, 2 guilds for penitent women, 10 charity kitchens, 12 hospitals or hospices, 8 communities for the care of the sick in their homes, 8 houses of re- treat, 3 homes for incurables, 2 insane asylums, and 7 homes for the aged, all conducted by sisters; and 1 institute for deaf, dumb, and blind boys, and 1 orphanage where farming is taught, both con- ducted by brothers. At the close of the year 1905 the archdiocese contained 823,131 inhabitants, 79 parishes, 431 mission churches, and 70 curacies.

Gallia Christiana (.nova). (1715) I, 1189-1222, instrumenta, 188-190; nova (1720). II. 785-858; instrumenta. 2G1-326; FiSQUET, France pontificale (Bordeaux, 1868); Cirot de L-\ ViLLE. OriffiTies chretiennes de Bordeaux:, ou histoire et descrip- tion de I'eglise de Saint-Seurin (Bordeaux, 1867); Jullian, Histoire de Bordeaur depuis tes origines jusgu'en 1S95 (Bor- deaux. 1895); Leroux, La primatie de Bourges in Annales du Midi, VII. 1895: Pabiset, L'etabliasement de la primatie de Bourges in Annales du Midi, XIV, 1902; Duchesne, Fastes Episcopaiii, II, 9-20. 58-62 and 101; Chevalier, Rep. des sources hist.-topobibl., 332 and 448-450.

Georges Goyau.

Bordeaux, University of, was founded dur- ing the English domination, under King Henry VI, in 1441, by a Bull of Pope Eugenius IV, at the de- mand of the archbishop's officials, Pierre Berland being at the time archbishop, and of the Aquitanian councillors. It did not, however, receive official recognition from the king until the reign of Louis XL According to the terms of the Bull, it was to be organized on the model of the f:tiidium of the Uni- versity of Toulouse. The Archbishop of Bordeaux was the chancellor for life. It included all the different faculties: theology, canon law, civil law, arts, etc. On account of the constant lack of endowment, the University of Bordeaux, from the time of its foundation until the French Revolution, never had any remarkable standing. After the Revolution, when the universities were reorganized in France by the Government, Bordeaux was one of the cities chosen to be the seat of a university. During the nineteenth century it had a brilliant career, especially in the field of medicine, among its professors being such men as Azam, Pitres. and others who were famous on account of their patho- logical researches.

Barckhausen, titatuts et ri-glements de Vancienne uni~ versite de Bordeaux (Libourne and Bordeaux, 1886); Gaul- i.ieur. Histoire du college de Guyenne (Paris, 1874); Denifle. Vniversit. des Mittelalters (1885); Fournier, Les statuts et privileges des universites iranpaises depuis leur jondation jusqurn 17S9 (Paris, 1890-92); Histoire de la science du droit en France (Paris. 1892); Rashdall, Universities of Europe m the Middle Ages (Oxford, 1895), II, pt. I.

G. M. S.\UVACE.

Bordone, Cavaliere Parls, an eminent painter of the Venetian school, b. at Treviso, 1500; d. at Venice, 1570. A member of a noble family, he early showed an inclination for art and, after being given a good general education, was placed in the school of Titian with whom he studied for several ye:irs. He afterwards had Giorgione for his master, u'hile feeling strongly the influence of both great painters, Bordone finally settled down to the style of Titian, whose manner he so successfully imitated


that his works have sometimes been mistaken for Titian's. In portraiture he was most successful, ceding to none but to Titian in excellence. In his early career he painted at Venice, Vicenza, and Tre\iso. At the last place his most important work was in the church of San Vicenzo, where he painted in the six compartments of the dome "The Annunciation", "The Nativity", "The Adoration of the Shepherds", "The Crucifixion", "The As- cension", and "The Assumption of the Virgin". Bordone was invited to visit France, some say by Francis I, and others by Francis II. by whom he was knighted. He remained, according to the latter authority, after the death of that king, for several years at the court of Charles IX, befoi-e returning to Italy. He painted the portraits of the royal family and the principal figures of their courts, working notably for the Duke of Guise and the Car- dinal de Lorraine.

The most famous work of Bordone is the large painting in the Academy at Venice, representing with great briUiancy of colour and effect "The Fisher- man Presenting the Ring of St. Mark to the Doge". On his return to Venice from France, Bordone stopped at Augsburg, where he did some work in the Fugger Palace, and at Milan, where he painted in the chapel of St. Jerome. Among the principal works of Bordone in European galleries are: Louvre, "Vertumna and Pomona", "Portrait of a Man", and "Portraits (presumed) of Pliilip II, King of Spain, and his Preceptor"; National Gallery, London, "Daphnis and Chloe", and "Portrait of a Genoese Lady"; Berlin Museum, "Madonna and Saints", "The Chess Players", and "Man in Black"; Dresden Gallery, " Holy Family with St. Jerome and St. Elizabeth", and "Diana, ApoUo and Marsyas"; Munich, Old Pinakotek, "Portrait of a Man", and "Man Counting Jewels"; Vierma Gallery, seven works including "Venus and Adonis in an Arbour", and "A Young Lady at her Toilet"; St. Petersburg Hermitage, "Madonna and Saints"; Brera, Milan, " Baptism of Christ"; Venice, Academy, "Presenting the Ring", and "The Tiburtine Sibyl"; Rome, Colonna Palace, "Holy Family"; Doria Palace, "Mars and Venus"; Padua Gallery, "Christ Taking Leave of His Mother"; Lovere, Tadini Col- lection, "Madonna and Two Saints"; Genoa, Brig- nole Palace, two portraits.

Bryan, Dictionary of Painters and Engravers (London, and New York, 1903-05).

Augustus van Cleef.

Borgess, Caspar Henry, third Bishop of Detroit. Michigan, V. S. A., b. at Ivloppenburg, Hanover, Germany, 1 August, 1824; d. at Kalamazoo, Michigan, 3 May, 1890. He emigrated to the United States in boyhood and made his classical and theological studies at St. Xavier's College, Cincinnati, and at St. Charles's Seminary, Philadelphia. He was or- dained priest at Cincinnati, 8 December, 1847, after which he was stationed for ten years at Columbu.s.

In 1859 he was made rector of St. Peter's Cathedral, Cincinnati, and remained there until he was conse- crated titular Bishop of Calydon and administrator of Detroit, 24 April, 1870." The first Bishop of Detroit, the Right Rev. Frederick Rese, consecrated 6 October, 1833, the first German in the United States to be raised to the episcopal dignity, became demented four years after his consecration and was called to Rome. He never resigned his charge and lived until 30 December, 1871, when he died in an institution at Hildesheim, Germany. As a conse- quence, Detroit was ruled by an administrator for thirty years. Bishop Borgess assuming the title only in 1871. The see up to his appointment had been dominated by Belgian and French influences, and he gradually made the changes to the English speak- ing regime that the growth of the new population