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BORGO


686


BORIE


his works in public galleries are: National Gallery, London, "Marriage of St. Catherine of Alex- andria"; a triptych with a "Virgin and Child Kn- throned", having at one side the "Agony in the Garden", and on the other "Christ Bearing His Cross", and two groups of family portraits; Louvre, "Presentation in the Temple", and "St. Peter of Verona", with a kneeUng woman; Berlin Museum, "Madonna Enthroned", and "Madonna with Saints"; Munich, Old Pinakotek, "Madonna in Adoration"; Dresden Gallery, "Madonna in Adoration"; Brera Gallery, Milan, "The Assumption of the Virgin"; and Pavia Academy, "Christ Bearing His Cross, fol- lowed by Carthusians". In the Casa Borromeo at Milan is a portrait of Bishop Andrea Novelli. The Pavia picture is considered without an equal in art in simple pathos and deep religious meaning. Lanzi and other authors have treated Ambrogio da Fossano, the architect, and Ambrogio Borgognone, the painter, as two different persons, but the sig- natures he left show that this was not the case.

Bryan, Dictionary of Painters and Engravers (London, and New York, 1903-05).

Augustus van Cleef.

Borgo San-Donnino, Diocese op, in the prov- ince of Parma, Italy. The city takes its name from St. Domninus, who fled to that place during the persecution of Maximian (286-305) and suffered mar- tyrdom. It did not become an episcopal see until 1601, under Clem.ent VIII, having until then been governed ecclesiastically by a provost with full faculties, subject directly to the Holy See. The last provost, Papiro Picedi da Castel Vezzano, was the first Bishop of Borgo San-Donnino. The cathedral, dating from the twelfth century, is a beautiful monu- ment of Romanesque architecture; its fagade, how- ever, is still unfinished. Among the notable occu- pants of this see have been: Alfonso Pozzi (1620), a learned and zealous man; Ranuccio Scoti (1626), several times papal nuncio under L^rban VIII, par- ticularly to Switzerland; Filippo Casoni (1650), who urged I'ghelli to write his "Italia Sacra"; Alessandro Parra\-icini. a Benedictine (1660); Gaetano Garim- berti (1675), who enlarged the episcopal residence and enriched the cathedral with gifts of sacred ves- sels and furnishings; Alessandro Roncovieri (1700), distinguished for his zeal and charity; Gerardo Giandemaria (1719), who held a diocesan sj-nod the wise decrees of which are still in force; Girolamo Baiardi (1753), who restored the episcopal residence and founded a hospital; Alessandro Garimberti (1776) who was distinguished for his prudent conduct during the French invasion, and who left his library to the seminary. This diocese has a population of 60,400, with 54 parishes, 76 churches and chapels, 100 sec- ular priests, 10 regulars, and 70 seminarians.

Battandier, Ann. pont. cath. (Paris, 1907).

U. Benigni. Borgo San-Sepolcro, Diocese of, situated in the province of Arczzo, Tuscany, Italy. The city is believed by some to be the ancient Biturgia men- tioned by Ptolemy, and is so designated in the usage of the Roman Curia. The foundation of the present city is attributed to two pilgrims of the tenth century, who halted in this neighbourhood on their return from Palestine, and built an oratory in which they placed the relics they had brought from the holy places. This oratory attracted many pilgrimages; gradually there grew up about it a settlement of con- siderable size known as Borgo San-Sepolcro. Later on, Camaldoli monks erected a monaster}' there, the abbot of which had temporal jurisdiction over the town. Guido Petramala, Bishop of Arezzo, fortified Borgo San-Sepolcro , and made it a Ghibelline strong- hold. At first subject to the Diocese of Castello, it was made an episcopal see by Leo X in 1515, the first bishop being Giovanni Ev. Galeotto Graziani. Among


the bishops worthy of record are Nicol6 Tornabuoni (1560), a learned theologian, author of a treatise on the controversies between Catholics and Calvinists; Dionisio Bussotti (1638), likewise a skilled theologian; Gian Lorenzo Tilli (1704), founder of the seminary. The cathedral is a splendid three-nave Romanesque edifice, showing, however, a marked tendency towards the Gothic. A famous image of the Holy Face (VoUo Santo) is venerated in the cathedral. It is a wooden crucifix of heroic size; the sacred Body is covered with a long tunic, and a cro\^-n rests on the head. It resembles the I'oUo Santo of Lucca, and has been in this cathedral since the tenth century; previously it was kept in the neighbouring castle of Bibbiona. Nothing certain is known as to its origin. However, the crucified Christ dressed in a long gar- ment {colobium) indicates a great antiquity, perhaps the eighth or ninth century. Other beautiful churches are those of San Agostino and Santa Maria; the latter has a beautiful baptistery, brought thither from the ancient church of San Agostino. Noteworthy also is the church of San Nicola, built in 1258 by the Fran- ciscan, Fra Tommaso da Spello, and restored in the eighteenth century. This diocese has a population of 60,500 Catholics, with 135 parishes, 250 churches and chapels, 190 secular priests, 26 regulars, and 60 seminarists. There are 3 academies, one for girls, and 2 for boys. The male religious orders repre- sented are: Minors Conventual, Servites, Capuchins; the female congregations are: Franciscans, Capuchins, Benedictines, Sisters of St. Anne, Sisters of Charity, Sisters of the Sacred Heart, Salesian Sisters, about 70 in all.

Cappelletti, Le chieae d'llalia (Venice, 1844), XVII; Annwiri, Eccl. (Rome, 1907), 331-334.

U. Benigni.

Bone, Pierre-Rose-I'rsule-Dumoulin, Bishop- elect of Acanthus, Vicar Apostolic of Western Tong- king and Martyr; b. 20 February, 1808, at Bej-nat, Diocese of Tulle, France; beheaded 24 November, 1838. He studied successively at the colleges of Beaulieu and Servieres, and in 1826 entered the semi- nary of Tulle. Meanwhile the desire to devote his life to the evangelization of distant lands matured, and in 1829 he proceeded to Paris and spent thir- teen months at the Seminary of the Foreign Mis- sions. Too young for the priesthood, he was to have been ordained at Pondicherry, on his way to his mis- sionary post. However, a dispensation from Rome permitted his immediate ordination, which took place at Bayeux (1830). He sailed from Havre, 1 Decem- ber, 1830, and, after spending some time at Macao, in China, arrived in Tongking in the year 1832. His progress in the language of the country was rapid, but eight months after his installation an edict of perse- cution was issued (January, 1833). Borie had to re- main almost continually concealed and to endure great privations. In 1834, faihng health increased the acuteness of the suflferings of persecution. He regained his strength the following year and was en- abled to visit even the least accessible Cliristian commimities of the vast district of which he was in charge. He fell into the hands of the persecutors in 1838. During his captivity he received the news of his nomination to the Vicariate Apostolic of West- ern Tongking, with Acanthus as titular see. Shortly after this, on the 24th of November, 1838, the death- sentence was pronounced on him and two native priests; the execution took place that same day. His remains were brought to France in 1843, and are religiously kept at the Seminary of the Foreign Missions, in Paris. The cause of his beatification has been introduced at Rome.

P. D. H. Borie (brother of Monseigneur Borie, writing anon>'Tnously), Vie de Myr. Borie, par un pretre du diocese de Tulle (Paris, 1844; 2d ed., 1846); Lacnay, Les cinq\<anU- deux aervUeura de Dieu (Paris, 1895), 133-162.

N. A. Weber.