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asylum in 1831. The first diocesan synod was held in 1842 and was attended by thirty priests. The clergy of this period were all men of broad , solid culture and knowledge. Among others not named above may be mentioned the Rev. Jeremiah O'Callaghan, a native of Cork, Ireland, whose strict views on the doctrine of usury brought him into conflict with the bishop of that place. He later became a tutor in the family of William Cobbett and came to New York in 1830. The mission of Burlington, Vermont, was given to his care, and there in 1834 he publi-shed a book under the title "Usury, Funds and Banking". Dr. Thomas J. O'Flaherty, a physician from Kerrj', Ireland, was ordained priest in 1829. He edited "The Jesuit" for the bishop and made a translation of Joseph de Maistre's "Spanish Inquisition". The Rev. C. E. Brasseur de Bourbourg was for a time in the diocese and two years after the bishop's death went to Mexico, where he devoted much time to decyphering the native picture ^\Titings. In 1845 it was estimated there were 53,000 Catholics in the State, an increase of more than 20,000 in ten years. (See Fenwick, Be.vedict Joseph.)

(3) John Bern.\rd Fitzp.\trick, third bishop, was consecrated titular Bishop of Callipolis and coadjutor of Boston, 24 March, 1844. He was born in Boston, 1 November, 1812, his parents having emigrated from Ireland in 1805. His early education was received in the local grammar and Latin schools, and in 1829 he went to the Sulpician college at Mont- real. After eight years spent there as student and pro- fessor he entered the Seminary of St. Sulpice, Paris, to complete his ecclesiastical course and was ordained priest there 13 June, 1840. He then returned to Boston and after a year as assistant at the cathedral was made pastor of the church at East Cambridge. In 1844 he was appointed coadjutor to Bishop Fen- wick. He took part in the Sixth Provincial Council of Baltimore in 1846 and attended the subsequent provincial councils and the first plenary council (1853), which further reduced the original limits of his jurisdiction by creating the dioceses of Burlington and Portland. During 1854 he paid his official visit to Rome afterhavingsuffered, together with his people, the utmost indignities and persecution at the hands of bigots. In July of that year the churches at Dorchester, at Bath, and at Manchester, New Hamp- shire, were destroyed by mobs. In October, at Ellsworth, Maine, the Rev. John Bapst, S.J., was taken by a band of masked men, stripped, smeared with tar and feathers, and forced out of the place. The legislature of Massachusetts also appointed a special committee to investigate convents, and the members forced their way into several institutions. From the pope Bishop Fitzpatrick received conso- lation and encouragement and the message to his people to "persevere under afflictions". The anti- Catholic sentiment in the community continued. On 14 March, 1859, a Catholic boy named Thomas J. Wall was whipped for refusing to read the Protestant Bible and recite Protestant prayers in one of the Boston public schools. Thereupon so strong a protest was made by the bishop against the injustice done to the Catholics of the community by the system and regulations then in operation that for the first time in the history of the city a priest and several Catholic laymen were named on the school committee. For many years the bishop was an invalid and a great sufferer, but he kept up his activities to the end and before his death on 13 February, 1866, saw the prosperity of the diocese increased nearly threefold. In 1860 Bishop Fitzpatrick, intending to build a new cathedral, sold the old church in Franklin Street for $115,000, the neighbourhood having changed into a business centre. Among his prominent con- verts may be noted Josue Moody, afterwards Bishop of Erie, Fathers George J. Goodwin, H. Tucker,

J. Coolidge Shaw, S.J., Edward H. Welch, S.J., Orestes A. Brownson, the philosopher, Buckley Hastings, General Joseph W. Revere (Paul Revere 's grandson), and other members of old New England families. Chaplains in the regiments who volunteered in the Civil War were Fathers Thomas Scully, Charle.-; L. Egan, Nicholas O'Brien, and LawTence S. Mc- Mahon (afterwards Bishop of Hartford). Editors and ^Titers were Fathers Joseph M. Finotti, John P. Roddan, and John Boyce.

(4) John Joseph Williams, fourth bishop, con- secrated 11 March, 1866; created first archbishop 12 February, 1875. He was born in Boston of Iri.sli parents 27 April, 1822, and died in Boston, 30 Au- gust, 1907. His boyhood and early manhood wen spent under the spiritual direction of Bishop Fenwick. He attended the cathedral school and thence passed to the Sulpician college in Montreal and their semi- nary at Paris, where he was ordained priest in 1815. He was the special friend of Bishop Fitzpatrick who made him his vicar-general at an early age and rector of St. James's church, where in 1842 he t s- tablished the first Conference of the Society nf St. Vincent de Paul in New England. Two otlur rectors of this church became bishops: the l\r\. James A. Healy, appointed Bishop of Portland in 1875, and M. A. Harkins Bishop of Providence in 1887. Shortly before his death Bishop Fitzpatrirk sought to have Father Williams made his coadjutnr but he did not live to see him consecrated. Bostim was made an archdiocese in 1875, and Bishop William,^ was promoted to be its metropolitan. He recei\(ii as an auxilliary the Right Rev. John Brady, ci'n secrated Titular Bishop of Alabanda, 5 August 1891. and a coadjutor with the right of successim in the Right Rev. William H. O'Connell of Portland who was promoted to be Titular Archbishop of Tom and coadjutor of Boston, 8 February, 1906. .^rcli bishop Williams also saw organized, within the hunt- of the Diocese of Boston as it was when he was born the Dioceses of Springfield, 1870; Providence, 1S7'_' Manchester, 1884; and Fall River, 1905, and amcini those immediately under his jurisdiction represent a tives of nearly every country and language of Euroin Prominent among the memorials of his long epism pate and priesthood were the new Cathedral of th( Holy Cross, dedicated 8 December, 1875, and St John's Ecclesiastical Seminary at Brighton, erected ii 1884, which is in charge of the Sulpicians. Bost(.i College opened by the Jesuits in 1863. In th. same year the Carney Hospital was establisln-. through the generosity of Andrew Carney, who wiii his family has given it $75,000. The House of tin Angel Guardian for boys, fomided in 1849 by tli. Rev. G. F. Haskins, in 1876 was entrusted to the cari of the Brothers of Charity from Montreal. St. Man,- Infant Asylum was opened in 1872; the Home fo the Aged by the Little Sisters of the Poor, in 1870 the House of the Good Shepherd in 1867, and thi Dalv Industrial School was made possible by thi gift "in 1899 of $.50,000 from the Rev. Patrick J. Daly The Home for Destitute children was opened in 1864 the Working Boys Home in 18S3, and the Home io Girls in 1884. St. Elizabeth's Hospital dates fron 1868, the Free Home for Consumptives from l.SiH the Holy Ghost Hospital (or Incurables from 18ii:l 'The Sisters of St. Joseph made their first foundatioi in the diocese in 1873; the Franciscan Sisters, ii 1884; the Religious of the Sacred Heart, in 1880; am the Carmelites from Baltimore, in 1890. The Re demptorists began a mission in the late sixties and built their first church in the Roxbury District in 1871. In 1883 the Marist Fathers began thei local work, and the Augustinians established them selves in Lawrence in 1861. French immigratioi from Canada, which had been going on since 1815 began to attract special attention about 1870. Ii ,