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to build the minster at Icanhoe. That the saint must have lived somewhere in the Eastern counties is proved by the indisputable evidence of the "His- toria Abbatum" (Plummer's Bede, I, 389), where we learn that Ceolfrid, Bede's beloved master at Wearmouth, "journied to the East Angles in order that he miglit see the foundation of Abbot Botulphus, whom fame had proclaimed far and wide to be a man of remarkable life and learning, full of the grace of the Holy Spirit", and the account goes on to say that Ceolfrid "having been abundantly instructed, so far as was possible in a short time, returned home so well equipped that no one could be found more learned than he either in ecclesiastical or monastic traditions". Folcard represents St. Botulph as living and dying at Icanhoe in spite of the molesta- tions of the evil spirits to which he was exposed at his first coming. Later accounts, e. e. the lessons of the Schleswig Breviary, suppose him to have changed his habitation more than once and to have built at one time a monastery upon the bank of the Thames in honour of St. Martin. His relics are said after the incursions of the Danes to have been re- covered and divided by St. ^thcwold between Ely, Thorney Abbey, and King Edgar's private chapel. What is more certain is that St. Botulph was honoured by many dedications of churches, over fifty in all, especially in East Anglia and in the North. His name is perpetuated not only by the little town of Boston in Lincolnshire with its American homonym, but also by Bossal in Yorkshire, Botesdale in Suffolk, Botolph Bridge in Huntingdonshire, and Botolph in Sussex. In England his feast was kept on 17 June, in Scotland on 25 June.

Stanton, Menology, 271 ; Acta SS., June, III, 402; M.^billon, Ada SS. Benedict., Ill, 1; Stubbs in Diet. Christ. Biog.; Grant in Diet. Nat. Biog.; Forbes, Calendars of Scottish Saints (Edin- liurgh. 1872), 283: and especially Ahnold-Forster, Church Dedications (London, 1899), II, 52-36.

Herbert Thurston.

Boturini Benaducci, Lorenzo, a native of Milan in Lonibardy who went to Mexico in 1736 by per- mission of the Spanish government and remained there eight years, familiarizing himself with the Nahuatl or Mexican language. He gathered a number of Indian pictogr.aphs on tissue paper, etc., the first collection of the kind of importance. His frequent intercourse with the aborigines excited suspicion, as he was a foreigner, and the authorities, ever on the watch for intrigues against Spanish rule by strangers, deprived him of all his material, includ- ing prints, while he himself was sent to Spain under surveillance. There he succeeded in clearing him- self of the accusations, but never obtained restitu- tion of the precious collection, which afterwards was neglected and partly lost. Notwithstanding these drawbacks, Boturini, from such notes as he had saved, composed a treatise with the title of: "Id^a y ensayo de una historia general de la America setentrional" (Madrid, 1746). The most valuable part of this book relates to his former library and to other literary material. His text, especially con- cerning migrations of Indian tribes, is of less impor- tance. Besides the "Id^a", he is credited with the authorship of the following writings: "Oratio ad Divinam Sapientiam" (Valencia, 1750), and "Oratio de lure naturali septentrionaliuin Indorum " (Valen- cia, 1751). The date and place of his death are unknown.

Clavigero, Storia antica delV Measico (Cesena, 1780): Beristain de Souza, Biblioteca hisvano-americana setentrional (Mexico, 1816).

Ad. F. Bandelier.

Boucher, Pierre, b. at Lagny, a village near Mortagne in the Perche, France, 1622; d. at Boucher- ville, 1717. In 1634 he went to Canada with his father, Gaspard Boucher, a simple joiner. At the

age of eighteen he entered the service of the Jesuu Fathers and went to their Huron missions at Georgian Bay. On liis return to Quebec in 1641 he served as a soldier in the garrison of that city. In 1645 he was interpreter of Indian languages at Three Rivers and in 164S commissary-general of the trading station at that place. Elected captain of the militia in 1651, while in command of the place during an interim in 1653 he repelled an Iroquois attack. Owing to his efficient defence he was placed in charge of the city, and retained the position until 16.58. In 1661 he wa* sent to France to represent the needs of the colonies and plead the cause of the inhabitants. On liis return to Canada, in 1662, he was reappointed Gov- ernor of Three Rivers, an office which he only re- signed in 1667 when he withdrew from public affairs to found the seigniorial parish called after his name Boucherville, situated opposite Montreal. He was succeeded in the governorship of Three Rivers by his son-in-law, Ren6 Gauthier de Vareimes, forbear ol the discoverer of Western Canada.

In 1664 Pierre Boucher had printed at Paris by the press of Florentin Lambert "L'histoire v^ritabU et naturelle des mo^urs et productions du pays de la Nouvelle-France, vulgairement dite le Canada". This work was published in 1849 in "L'Albmn Ca- nadien", in 1882 at Montreal, and in 1896 in the "M^moires de la Soci6t6 Royale du Canada". Ar English translation appeared in 1883. Pierre Bouchei is considered the best tj-pe of a Canadian landec proprietor, filled with piety, rectitude, and honoiu' At his death he left a numerous posterity. Th( family is still in existence, and the highest station! are filled by members bearing the names Boucherville Bruere, Niverville, Grosbois, and Montizanibert Pierre Boucher was the first Canadian colonist to b( ennobled by King Louis XIV. His letters of nobility dated 1661, were renewed in 1707.

Registres des insinuations du Conseil superi^ur de la Nourdle France, III, D, 46: Daniel, Grandes families canadiennes SuLTE. Pierre Boucher et son livre in Royal Society of Canada Transactions, new series, II, 99-148: Lalande, La paroisse d Boucherville (1890); Roy, Histoire de la 8ei{]neurie de Louzon 1,11.

J. Edmond Roy.

Bougaud, Louis-Victor-Emile, Bishop of Lava in France, b. at Dijon. 28 February, 1823; d. at Laval 7 November, 1888. He received his classical educa tion at Autun, where his professor of rhetoric was thi Abb^, afterwards Cardinal, Pitra. He studied theol ogj' at Dijon and Paris, was ordained priest by Mon seigneur Affre in 1846, was professor of church his tory at the Seminary of Dijon (1846-51), and the) chaplain of the Con\'ent of the Visitation in the sami city (1851-61). In 1861 he accepted the position o Vicar-General to Bishop Dupanloup at Orleans. Ii 1886 he was appointed Bishop of Laval.

Besides the sermons which he delivered in Paris an< other cities. Bishop Bougaud wrote numerous works While chaplain of the Visitation Convent, he WTOt " Histoire de Saint Benigne, premier 6veque de Dijon' and "Hi-stoire de Sainte Chantal". While Vicar General of Orleans, he wrote "Histoire de Saint Monique", "Histoire de la bienheureuse Marguerite Marie", "Le Christianisme et les temps presents' (his great apologetical work, in 5 vols.); "Le gran< p6ril de I'Eglise de France au XIX° siecle", and " His toire de Saint Vincent de Paul" (2 vols.). A volumi of his discourses was published by his brother.

He was a preacher and wTiter of great influence, ii consequence of his appreciation of all noble thought and deeds, his deep compassion for human suffering his great power of reflection , and his refined artistii taste. In his apologetics he evinces thorough sym pathy with his own time and an unwavering hope fo the triumph of the Church. His purpose was to adap the explanations of the dogmas, precepts, and or , ganization of the Church to the moral and intellectua