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confideni-e of Leo XIII and of many eminent church- men, and showed throughout his hfe unj-ielding de- votion to the ideals, teaching, and administration of the Church. His extraordinarj- grasp of current thought developed in liim an openmindedness and a sjTiipathy with real progress which, combining with his other traits, gave a pecuhar fascination to his character. In 1S91 he was induced to publish a pamphlet on education setting forth the abstract principles involved. His views met with con- siderable opposition. In all liis published replies to critics he maintained his original positions with- out any modification whatever and ascribed the opposition to misunderstanding of his point of -i-iew and of his statement of principles Dr. Bouquillon was active and influential in the organization of the Catholic Universities of Lille and Washington. In both he gained a name for great practical wisdom in questions of organization and law and for ex- traordinary power as a teacher.

He published: "Theologia Morahs Fundamentalis " (3d ed., Bruges, 1903), a masterpiece of erudition, analysis, and exposition; " De Virtutibus Theologicis " (2d ed., Bruges, 1S90); "De Virtute Rehgionis" (2 vols., Bruges, 1880); "Education" (Baltimore, 1891); "Education, a Rejoinder to Critics" (Balti- more, 1892); " Education, a Rejoinder to the ' C"ivilta Cattolica ' " (Baltimore, 1892); the last three of which were translated into French. He published many critical studies in the " Re%nie des sciences eccl6- siastiques". of which he was at one time editor, in the "Nouvelle revue th^ologique", the Revue Bene- dictine", "The .Ainerican Catholic Quarterly", and " The Cathohc University Bulletin ". He edited, with notes and comments, Stapleton, " De Magnitudine Ec- clesise Romanae " (Bruges, 1881); " Leonis XIII .A.II0- cutiones. Epistolae aliaque acta" (2 vols., Bruges, 1887); PlateUi, " Synopsis cursus Theologize " (Bruges); " Catecliisraus ex decreto Concilii Tridentini " (Tour- nai, 1890); " Dies Sacerdotalis " of Dirckinck (Toumai, 1888); Louis de Grenade. " L'Excellence de la tres sainte Eucharistie" (Lille); Coret, " L'Annee sainte " (1676) (Bruges, 1889).

Rommel. Thomas Bouquillon, Notice bio-bibliographique (Brussels, 1903); The Catholic University Bulletin (1903), DC, 152-163.

William J. Kerbt. Bourasse, Je.^n-J.^^cqdes, archteologist and his- torian, b. at Ste.-Maure (Indre-et-Loire), France, 22 December, 1813; d. at Tours. 4 October, 1872. He made his preparatorj' studies for the priesthood in Paris. In 1835, he taught the natural sciences at the preparatorj' seminary of Tours, where he began a course of archaeology that soon attracted attention. The results achieved by him in a field of research, then comparatively new, were such as to entitle him to be considered a veritable pioneer in France, of the science of Christian archaeologj-. In 1S84 he became professor at the grand seminaire and held the chair of dogmatic theology there for six years. He then discontinued teaching in order to devote himself entirely to the preparation of his various archaeological works. Among the productions pub- lished by him the best known are: "Archeologie Clir^tienne" (1841); "Les Cath^drales de France" (1843); "Les plus belles ^glises du monde" (1857); "Recherehes hist, et archil, sur les 6glises romaines en Touraine" (1869).

BrcHBERGER, Ktrchlickes-HandUiicon, I, 116; ViGOCROUX in Diet, de la Bible, I, 1894; Chev.\lier. L'abbe Bourasse in Bulletin de la Societe archeologupte de Touraine (1873). II 377- 423.

M. J. Waldron. Bourbon, Diocese op. See Saint-Denis, Diocese


Bourchier, Thom.\.«;, b. 1406; d. 1486, Cardinal, was the third son of William Bourchier, Earl of Eu, and of Lady .\nne Plantagenet, a daughter of Thomas

of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester, youngest son of Edward III. At an early age he entered the Uni- versity of Oxford, and in due course, embracing a clerical career, was collated to the living of Colwich, Staffordshire, in the Diocese of Coventry and Lich- field, on 24 May, 1424. His next promotion was to the Deanery of St. ilartin-le-Grand in London, 1 December. 1427, and he was likewise inducted to the prebend of West Thurrock; it was not till 24 Sep- tember, 1429. that he was ordained acolj^e and sub- deacon. This rapid promotion was doubtless due to his high birth, and though no evidence exists of any special attainments as a scholar, he was further appointed Chancellor of the University of Oxford in 1434, a post which he held for tlu-ee years; in 1433, notwitlistanding lus youth, he was recommended for the then vacant See of Worcester. The pope had, how- ever, already made another choice, but interest was exerted with the result that the previous nomination was cancelled, and Eugenius IV by a Bull dated 9 March, 1434 appointed Bourchier Bishop of Wor- cester, the temporalities of the see being restored to him on 15 April, and on 15 May he received episcopal consecration. Not long after, the Bishop of Ely died, and the Benedictine Cathedral Chapter desiring Bourchier for their pastor, sent to Rome to procure Bulls for his translation. These were expedited; but the King of England steadily refused to restore the temporalities to him, so Bourchier renounced the election. Ely was kept vacant till 1443, under the administration of Louis de Lu.xembourg. Archbishop of Rouen. This arrangement, sanctioned by the pope, had been made in order that Louis de Luxembourg might enjoy the revenues, a convenient form of reward employed by the English sovereigns at that time, since it proved no burden to the royal exchequer. On the death of the Archbishop of Rouen, Bourchier, this time nominated by the king, was at once elected by the Chapter of Ely, the Bulls for the translation, dated 20 December, 1443, procured, and after the usual confirmation he received the teniporalities on 27 Februarj-. 1443-44, but it seems that he was not enthroned till another two years had elapsed. Both as Bishop of Worcester and of Ely he was frequently called to the royal councils. The Archbishopric of Canterbury fell vacant early in 1454, and Bourchier was recommended for the primatial see. To this he was translated on 22 April, and was entlironed in February, 1454-55. On 5 March following he was appointed Lord Chancellor and received the Seals from Henn," VI during that monarch's temporary recoverv' from the insanity that was settling on him. The troubles between the rival factions of the Yorkists and Lancastrians were then fomenting, and it was hoped that Bourchier might possibly keep the balance even between them. When the Yorkists marched south, their leaders informed the chancellor that their objects were peaceable; but though Bourchier en- deavoured to inform the king of their assurances, his communication never reached the sovereign, and the hostile forces met in battle at St. Albans, 22 May,

1455, when Henrj- VI was defeated and taken prisoner. This action marks the commencement of the Wars of the Roses. A Parliament was sum- moned for July, when the Duke of York received pardon. The meeting was then prorogued till No- vember, but in the meanwhile Hem^- relapsed into imbecility, and the Duke of York was named Pro- tector. Bourchier resigned the Great Seal in October.

1456, when Queen Margaret obtained possession of the king, and with him the chief power fell into her hands. Although the archbishop and Waynfiete, as peacemakers, drew up terms of agreement between the parties, dissensions soon broke out again, and after hearing the Yorkists' grievances, Bourchier undertook to accompany them to the king, then at Northampton, with a view to securing a settlement.