It was Bourdon who surveyed and laid out all the domains and land grants assigned in this territory under the supervision of land companies. He laid out the first streets of Quebec, and drew up the plans and supervised the construction of the first chateau, Saint-Louis, at the order of Montmagny. He left a chart of the Beaupr6 shore and vicinity (1641) and two plans of Quebec (1660-64). He also traced a map of the territory through whicli he travelled in 1646 when he was dispatched with Father Isaac Jogues, S.J., to .-Ubany, to make a treaty of peace with the Iroquois; this, however has been lost. Well-informed, reliable, and conscientious, Bourdon was the confidential agent of the governors, who •employed liim on several missions with success. In 1657 he embarked for Hudson's Bay, but driven back by the savages, and his way blocked by ice, he was forced to return to Quebec, after having reached 5.5 degrees \. lat. .Jean Bourdon colonized the manorial estate of Pointe-aux-Trembles at a distance of twenty miles from the capital, and at a later date a fief, called after him Saint-Jean, still preserved in one of the principal suburbs of Quebec.
Marcel. Cartographic de la NouveUe-France (Paris. 1885); Roy, Bov-rdon et la Baie d'Hudson (Quebec, 1896): Gosselfn-, Jean Bourdon et son ami Vabbe de Sainl-Sauveur (1904); The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents, XI, 277.
J. Edmond Roy.
Bourgade, FR.\Nfois, a French missionarj- and philosopher, b. 7 July, 1806, at Gaujan, department of Gers; d. 21 May, 1866, at Paris. He pursued his theological studies at the seminary of Audi and was ordained priest in 1832. His immediate request to be authorized to work among the infidels of Africa was granted only in 1838. He proceeded to Algeria and, after ministering for some time in the hospitals of this colony, passed over to the regency of Tunis, where he founded a hospital and several schools. He was put in charge of the chapel which Louis Philippe (1830-48) had erected on the spot where St. Louis died, and he received several decorations, among them the Legion of Honour. The chief object of his literary productions was to spread the knowledge of Christianity among the Mohammedans. He published "Soirees de Carthage" (1847); "La clef du Coran" (1852); "Passage du Coran a I'Evan- gile" (1856); the important philological work, "La toison d'or de la langue phSnicienne" (1852, 1856); a refutation of Renan's "Life of Jesus", under the title, "Lettre a M. E. Renan" (1864).
Vapf.re.4u, Diet, univer, des contemporains, s. v. in the first four editions; Hurter, Nomenclator (Innsbruck, 1S95), III. 989, 990.
N. A. Weber.
Bourgade, Peter. See Sant.*. Fe, Archdiocese
Bourgeoys, M.^rguerite. See Notre Dame,
Bourges (Bituric.e), Archdiocese of, coexten- sive with the departments of Cher and Indre. After the Concordat of 1802 it became the metropolitan of the Sees of Clermont, Saint-Flour, and Limoges, and in 1822 received as new suffragans the Sees of Tulle and Le Puy. As Gregorj' of Tours assigns a date subsequent to the "mission of the twelve bishops", that is, to the year 250, for the foundation of the Church at Bourges; and as Leo, who occupied the See of Bourges in 453, was its twelfth bishop; Duchesne, after most careful calculation, places the episcopate of St. Ursinus, founder of the see, near the close of the third centurj'. He exp'ains that the legend which makes l^rsinus one of the seventy- two disciples seems to be of later origin than that of St. Martial, being met •nnth for the first time in an eleventh-centurj- manuscript. Fifteen saints fig- ured among Leo's successors up to the end of the ninth centurj-; Se\-itianus, ^Etherius, Thecretus, Mar-
eellus (all prior to 337); Palladius (377-384); Sim- plicius (472-480); DesideratiLs (.549-550); Probianus, Felix. Remedius, and the first Sulpicius (all in the second half of the sixth century) ; Austregisilus (612- 624); the second Sulpicius (624-644), after whom the celebrated church of St.-Sulpice in Paris was named; David (793-802) ; and Agilulfus (c. 820-840). Among later bishops are: St. Guillaume de Donjeon (1200- 09); the celebrated theologian. ^Egidius a Columnis (1298-1316); and Jean Coeur (1447-83), son of the treasurer Jacques Cccur and during whose episcopate the University of Bourges was founded.
The claims of the See of Bourges to the primacy in Aquitaine are treated at length in the article on BordeaiLx. Pope Clement V (1305-14) opposed these claims; nevertheless the See of Bourges always prided itself upon a sort of plafonic supremacy, and when, in 1678, the Bishop of -Albi became Arch- bishop, he recognized explicitly the claims of Bourges. Even to-day the Archbishop of Bourges retains the title of Primate of Aquitaine; in this way, the name of Aquitaine which, after the thirteenth centurj', disappeared from political geographj' (l^eing replaced by that of Guj'enne) has been perpetuated in the terminology of the Church. In 1107 Pascal II, and in 1163 Alexander III, ^-jsited the Diocese of Bourges. Manj' councils were held at Bourges, the principal among them being those of 1225 and 1226 which dealt with the Albigenses; that of 1438, after which Charles VII promulgated the Pragmatic Sanc- tion wherebj' the decrees of Basle were ratified in France, and the organization of a Gallican Church was attempted; and the coimcil of 1528 which com- bated the Protestant encroaclunents favoured at Bourges on the one side bj- the university in which Cahnn and Theodore Beza studied, and on the other bj' the court of Margaret of Valois.
The following great abbej's were located within the diocese: the Benedictine Abbej' of D6ols near Chateauroux, founded in the tenth century, where St. Lusorius, son of the senator Leocadius. was in- terred; the Abbej- of St.-Satur near Sancerre, founded in 463; and that of Chezal-Benoit founded in 1098 by Blessed Andr^ of Vallombrosa. and mother-house of the great Benedictine conCTegation which in- cluded the Parisian Abbej' of !^t.-Germain-des-Pr^s and was later merged into the Congregation of St.- Maur. St. Leman, Archbishop of Se\'iUe, who fJed the persecutions of Totila, suffered martjTdom at Vatan in the middle of the sixth centurj'. Louis VII (1120-80) was crowned in the Cathedral of Bourges, and Louis XI (1423-83) and the great Cond^ (1621- 86) were baptized at Bourges. Labbe, author of the "Collection of Councils" (1607-67) and Bour- daloue, the illustrious preacher (1632-1704), both Jesuits, were born at Bourges. The Cathedral of Bourges (thirteenth centurj') has beautiful windows and its sacristj- (fifteenth centuiy) was bmlt at the expense of Jacques Cceur.
The places of pilgrimages in the diocese are:
(1) Notre Dame of D6ols near Chateauroux, a pilgrimage begun in the tenth centurj' bj' Ebbo. The church was consecrated bj' Pascal II. Pope -Alexander III when in exile lived there and received Henry II of England; Pope Honorius III A-isited it.
(2) Notre Dame du Bien Mourir at Fontgom- bault. (3) The pilgrimage of Ste.-So!ange, patron saint of the Countj' of Berry. Ste.-Solange was born at Villemont, three leagues from Bourges, and suf- fered death to preserve her virginitj'. (4) Notre Dame du Sacr6 Coeur at Issoudun. (5) Notre Dame de Pellevoisin. famous for the visions that date back to 1876 and concerning which ecclesiastical authority is still silent.
In 1899, the foUomng institutions were found in the archdiocese: 36 infant schools in Cher and 29 in Indre, conducted by sisters, 3 girls' orphanages in