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BOURGOING


722


BOURNE


1879, at the age of eighty, he made his last journey to Rome; five years later he heroically set out upon a tour of his former diocese -with a \iew to re-estab- lishing its badly compromised finances.

The remains of Bishop Lartigue and those of Archbishop Bourget were interred together in a vault under one of the pillars (the south-west) that support the dome of the cathedral. After the ser- vices held at Notre Dame at which the Verj- Rev. Father Collin, Superior of St. Sulpice, delivered the funeral oration over the body of Archbishop Bourget, another ser\'ice was conducted at the pro-cathedral for the two deceased prelates whose eulogj' was pronounced by Archbishop Tach6 of St. Boniface. In June, 1903, a handsome monument was dedicated to the memory of Archbishop Bourget. This work of art, by the sculptor Hebert, stands in front of the cathedral. It was erected by both clergy and faithful, who contributed $25,000, and is a testimony of affection to a great bishop who was at the same time a great citizen. The published works of Arch- bishop Bourget comprise eight volumes of pastoral letters.

De Brumath, Mgr. Bourget, archevcque de Martianopolis, ancwn ^ique de Montreal; Archives of the Archdiocese of Montreal; Semaine Religieuse files (Montreal), V, XLI.

Paul Bruchesi.

Bourgoing, Franpois, third Superior General of the Congregation of the Oratory in France and one of the ten early companions of Cardinal de B^rulle, the founder of the French Oratorians, b. at Paris, 1.585; d. in 1662. Bourgoing came from a family of which many members had been magistrates. Before join- ing the Oratorians he was cur^ of Clichy and resigned this position in favour of St. Vincent de Paul, who was also a disciple and friend of de B^ruUe. After entering the congregation he was soon occupied in founding and directing new houses of the Oratorians, being called in all directions by the bishops of France and Flanders. In 1631 he was made assistant to the Superior General, Pere de Condren, and in 1641, upon the death of the latter, he was appointed to the vacant office. As superior general he toiled with unceasing zeal in organizing and developing the congregation. He was also an energetic opponent of the Jansenist heresy. After his death Bossuet delivered the funeral oration. Father Bourgoing was a â– miter of the first rank on asceticism, as Bossuet testifies. His prin- cipal work, "V^ritfe et excellences de J&us Christ notre Sauveur", has been issued more than thirty times, including an edition in 1906, and has been translated into several languages. Equally re- markable is his work, "Exercices de retraites", of which he published four series.

Cloyseault. Recueil de vies de ^ueUrues pretres de VOratoire (Paris, 1882), II, 1; Ingold, Essai de bibliographie oratorienne (Paris, 1880). 21; Batterel, Mhnoires, II. 285.

A. M. P. Ingold.

Bourne, Francls. See Westminster, Arch- diocese OF.

Bourne, Gilbert, last Catholic Bishop of Bath and Wells, England, son of Philip Bourne of Worces- tershire, date of birth unknown; d. 10 Sept., 1569, at Silverton in Devonshire. Entering Oxford Uni- versity in 1524. he became Fellow of All Souls College in 1531, proceeded in Arts in 1532, and was ad- mitted B. D. in 1543, having in 1541 been named prebendary of Worcester on the suppression of the old monastic chapter. Removing to London in 1545 he became a prebendary of St. Paul's, and in 1549 Archdeacon of Bedford with the hving of High Ongar in Essex. At the time in question the holding of such preferments involved at least some accept- ance of the rehgious changes effected under Henry VIII and his successor. However, like many others who then externally submitted, Bourne seems to


have always been a CathoUc at heart, and the sin- cerity of nis return to the old religion under Mary was proved later by his unalterable firmness under persecution. Soon after her accession, whilst preach- ing at St. Paul's Cross, he narrowly escaped a dagger which a fanatic hurled on hearing him allude to Bishop Bonner's recent sufferings under the late regime. On being appointed to the Bishopric of Bath and Wells, Bourne received absolution from Cardinal Pole, the papal legate, by letters dated Paris, 17 March, 1554, from all censures incurred in the time of schism, and on 1 April was consecrated with five others by Bishop Bonner, assisted by Bishops Gardiner and Tunstall. During his brief episcopate he laboured zealously for the restoration of the Catholic religion, although towards heretics, as even Godwin, a Protestant, admits, he always used kindness rather than severity, nor do any seem to have been executed in his diocese. Queen Mary showed her high esteem for him by naming him Lord President of the Council of Wales. Ehzabeth, however, whilst expressing herself contented with his service, relieved him quickly of that office in pursuance of her policy to remove Cathohcs from such posts of trust.

At the beginning of Elizabeth's reign Bourne was kept away from London by illness and official duties, and he is only mentioned once as present in the Parliament. For this reason he was one of the last bishops to be deposed, and he was even named amongst those first commissioned to consecrate Pa.'ker, appointed primate of the queen's new hierarchy. On his refusal, and on his rejection of the Supremacy Oath, which four Somersetshire justices were commissioned on 18 October, 1559. to administer, his deprivation followed. For a little time he still was left in Somerset, apparently .a. prisoner on parole; but on 31 May, 1560, he received a summons to appear within twelve days before Parker and the Commissioners in London. He set out, as his reply to Parker shows, well knowing what to expect, and was committed on 18 June a close

Crisoner to the Tower, where already five of his rother prelates were immured. There in solitary confinement, for the most part, he remained three years, when an outbreak of the plague in September, 1563, caused him and his companions to be for a time transferred into the perhaps equally objection- able keeping of certain of their Protestant suc- cessors; Bourne himself being committed to that apparently of BuUingham of Lincoln.

Thus began that continual "tossing and shifting" of the deposed prelates " from one keeper to an- other, from one prison to another", which Car- dinal Allen, who had every means of knowing, describes as one part of their "martyrdom". Ac- cordingly we find the Council, in June, 1565, sending them all back to the Tower, although a httle later, in a letter of Parker (January, 1566), BuUingham is mentioned as though again for a time Bishop Bourne's actual or intended keeper, whilst all the captive prelates continue during the next two years to be referred to as then in the public prisons. After nearly ten years of this suffering existence Bishop Bourne expired 10 September, 1569, at Silverton in Devonshire, having been there com- mitted (apparently not long) to the custody of Carew, .\rchdeacon of Exeter and Dean of Windsor, There he was buried in the church, though no monu- ment marks the spot.

The oft repeated story of t he kindly treatment shown by Elizabeth to the prelates she deposed proves to rest solely on Lord Burghley's interested statement (Exe- cution of Justice, 1583) which his own acts and papers contradict, but which was eagerly adopted and en- larged by the prejudiced defenders of Elizabeth. .\n- drewes (Tortura Torti, 1609), Camden (Annales, 1615)^