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(1527-44), the forty-fourth bishop, was one of the most zealous promoters of the so-called Reforma- tion; althougli in 1528 he bound himself by oath to the pope and to Elector Joachim I to withstand the Lutheran innovations, he installed a Lutheran preacher in the city of Brandenburg in the same year, released his priests from their vow of celibacy (1535), and introduced the administration of Com- munion under both forms. After the resignation of his successor, Joachim, Duke of Miinsterberg Prince Elector John George was appointed adminis- trator of the diocese, which by that very act was secularized. The cathedral chapter was preserved in name, and consists to the present day of one cathedral dean, one senior and seven cathedral capitulars; these positions are bestowed as sine- cures on Prussian statesmen, generals, theologians, etc.

II. Statistics. — Ecclesiastically, the former Mark of Brandenburg, with the city of Berlin and the greater part of the pro\-ince of Pomerania, forms the "Apostolic Delegature for the Jlark Brandenburg and Pomerania", which is administered by the Prince-Bishop of Breslau as Apo.stolic Delegate, indirectly through the Dean of St. Hedwig's in Berlin as delegate of the prince-bishop. According to the census of 1 December, 1900, the number of Catholics ■was 314,287; in 1907 it had reached 443,100. For the work of the ministry, the delegature is divided into 7 archipresbj-terates with 82 spiritual charges,

6 curateships, etc. Catholic churches and chapels number 128. The clergy of the delegature include (in addition to the delegate of the prince-bishop, the army bishop for the Prussian troops, and the secretary of the delegation) 160 priests, viz.: 72 priests having charges, 54 chaplains and curates, 19 priests having other appointments, 15 living in com- munity. The following orders of men liave foun- dations (1907): Dominicans 1, with 10 priests and

7 lay brothers; Alexians 1, with 22 brothers; Poor Brothers of St. Francis 1, with 17 brothers. Orders and congregations of women have 42 foundations, with 733 sisters: Ursulines 1, with 24 choir sisters, 1 choir novice, and 12 lay sisters; the Sisters of the Good Sheplierd 2, -n-ith 135 sisters; Sisters of St. Charles Borromeo 6, with 132 sisters; Dominicans of St. Catherine of Sienna 11, with 152 sisters; the Grey Nuns of St. Elizabeth 17, with 219 sisters; the Sisters of Mary 4, with 58 sisters; the Sisters of St. Joseph 1, with 13 sisters. The orders of women devote themselves almost exclusively to the care of the sick and the poor, and the education of young girls.

The Catholics of the delegature liave but one pri- vate high school for boys; there are 4 Catholic high schools for girls, one of which is conducted by the Ursulines. There are 30 Catholic primary schools in Berlin and outside of Berlin 52; elsewhere Catholic children are given religious instruction by clergy and secular teachers, in some places in non-Cathohc schools (140), elsewhere in churches and chapels, or in private houses. Religious orders of women conduct 15 protectorates for small children, and 9 schools of domestic economy and manual training.

The Catholic charitable institutions of the dele- gature are almost exclusively under the control of religious congregations of women. There are 10 hospitals and sanatoria, 5 homes for convalescents and those in need of rest, 1 institution for the mentally deranged, 1 maternity home, 29 institutions for \'isiting nurses, 7 homes for invalids, 6 for the care of small children, 8 creches and homes for children, 3 hospices for men, 9 refuges and boarding-houses for women, 8 homes for girls out of work, 15 institu- tions for the care of orphans and the instruction of first-communicants, and 4 homes for the shelter and reclamation of girls. It should be noted that in

many cases several of these institutions form one establishment and are under the same management.

The organization of Catholics in the delegature has reached a high stage of development. There are about 300 religious associations. Among the con- fraternities and rosarj' unions are: 30 societies of the Holy Family, 50 societies of St. Charles Borromeo, 35 associations of young men and societies of St. Aloysius, 25 congregations of ilary and societies of young women. Among charitable associations, men- tion may be made of the Society of St. Vincent de Paul, with about 40 conferences of men and women, and the Charitable Association (Charitasverband) for Berlin and other centres of charitable work. Among Catholic trade unions are Catholic labour unions, about 60; local societies of Christian workmen, 32; Catholic GeselUnvereine, 8; masters' unions, 3; ap- prentices' unions, 4; mercantile miions, 5; associations of teachers, 5; corporations of students, 10; national bureaus (Volksbure^ius), 2, etc. Among political orga- nizations are the National L^nion for Catholic Ger- many {Volksi^erein jiir das kathoUsche Deutschland) and the Windthorst leagues. Catholic social organi- zations are numerous: societies of men, civic asso- ciations, choral unions and the like. (For politico- ecclesiastical relations see Prussia.)

Gercken, a usiuhrliche StifUhiatorie von Brandenburg (Wolfenbiittel, 1766); R.vttmer, Veber die alteste GesckichU und Verfassunq der Churmark Brandenburg (Zerbst, 1830); RiEDEL, Die Mark Brandenburg im Jahre 1250 (Berlin, 1831- 32); Radmer. Regesta historice Brandenburgensis (Berlin, 1836); RiEDEL, Codex diplomatims Brandenburgensis (Berlin, 1838- 69): Spieker, Kirchen- und Reformationsgeschichte der Mark Bra-ndenburg (Berlin, 1839); Bassewftz, Die Kurmark Bran- denburg (Leipzig. 1847-61); Winter. Die Pramonstratenser des 12. Jahrhunderts (Gotha, 1865): Idem, Die Cisterstienser des nordostliehen Deutschlands (Gotha, 1867); Brosien, Brandenburg im Mittelaller (Leipzig, 1887); Heidemann, Gesckichte der Reformation in der Mark Brandenburg (Berlin, 1889): STEixMi'LLER, Die Reformation in der Kurmark Bran- denburg (Halle. 1903); Curschm.ann, Die Diozese Brandenburg (Leipzig. 190(5): Amtlicher Fiihrer durch die furstbischofiiehe Delegatur (Berlin, 1906); Miirkische Forschungen (Berlin, 1841-87): Forschungen zur brandenburgischen und preussischen

Geschichte (Berlin, 1888 ); Mdrkkches Kirchenblatt (Berlin,

1857 ).

Joseph Lins.

Branly, Edouard, a French physicist and inventor of the coherer employed in wireless telegraphy, b. at Amiens, 23 October, 1846. After receiving his early education at the Lyc^e of St.-Quentin, his scientific studies were begun at the Lyc^e Henri IV at Paris, and in 1865 he entered the Ecole Normale Sup^rieure. In 1868 he became Licentiate in mathematics and physical science, and also agrcgc in physical and natural science. After occupying a professor's chair at the Lyc^e of Bourges, he was appointed chef dc.i travaux in 18G9. and four years later he was made director of the Laboratory of Instruction in the dfpartment of physics at the Sorbonne. In the same year (1873) he won the doctorate in science with a thesis entitled "Electrostatic Phenomena in Voltaic Cells". In 1S76 he resigned his post at the Sorbonne to become professor of physics at the Catholic University in Paris. He then took up the study of medicine, obtaining his degree in 1882, and thereafter di\'ided his time between the practice of medicine, especially of physiotherapy and electro- therapy, and his researches in phj-sics at the Catholic University.

Dr. Branly is best known by his researches con- cerning radio-conductors, and particularly by his so-called coherer. He began his studies in this field in 1890, being led to undertake them by observing the anomalous change in the resistance of thin metal- lic films when exposed to electric sparks. Platinum deposited upon glass was first employed. The effect was at first attributed to the influence of the ultra violet light of the spark. The variations in the re- sistance of metals in a finely divided state were even more striking, and they were sho\\Ti by Dr. Branly