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lie Bourbourg. His own works, chiefly the Introduction to

the Histoire des nations civilisees etc. de Mexiqtie etc., furnished the chief data for the above sketch.

Ad. F. B.\ndelier.

Brassicanus, Joh.\nn Alex.\nder, a German humanist, b. probably at Cannstatt, 1500; d. at Vienna, 25 November, 1539. He was a member of an ancient family of Constance, named Kol or KoU, latinized, Brassicanus, his father being Johannes Brassicanus, the Wiirtemberg hmnanist who taught in the Latin school at Urach up to 1508, and later in the psedagogium at Tubingen, but was chiefly known as a leader in the movement for the promotion of the humanities and as the author of a grammar then widely used, " Institutiones grammaticEe", thirteen editions of which were issued between 1508 and 1519. From his father, who died at Wildaad in 1514, Johann Alexander received an excellent edu- cation, which brought his intellectual powers to an early maturity, enabling him to matriculate at the University of Tubingen 13 January, 1514, and take his degree as Master of Arts in 1517. About this time he first gave evidence of his fertile poetic powers, and in 1518 he received the title of Poeta et orator laureatus. His coronation as poet must have taken place early in 1518, Emperor Maximilian at the same time granting him a coat of arms. The greatest humanists of the time kept in correspondence with Brassicanus, and are loud in praise of his in- tellectual powers. He lectured for a short time before the Faculty of Arts on the Latin poets; he also edited the eclogues of Calpurnius and Nemesianus which he had discovered. When, after Bebel's death (1516), a reaction once more set in against humanism, he availed himself of tlie first opportunity to absent himself temporarily from the scene of his former labours. In 1519 he attached himself to the suite of the royal orator Maximilian von Bergen, who was sent on various diplomatic missions by the king. After a sojourn in the Netherlands (1520) Brassicanus returned to Tubingen (1521) to pursue his study of law in connexion with his work as a teacher. In this way he was brought into intimate relations with Cantiuncula, the jurist of Basle. Removing to Ingolstadt, he received there the degree of Doctor of Laws, also succeeding Reuchlin in the important chair of philology (1522). His position in this strong- hold of Catholicity, however, soon became untenable, as he, like so many orthodox minds of the time who openly sympathized with the reforming activities of Luther, was suspected of being a confirmed Lutheran. At this juncture he found friends ready to assist him, in Johann Faber and Johann Camers, who worked zealously for his appointment to the L'niversity of Vienna, and whose influence helped to give a more orthodox tone to his opinions on religious questions. In 1524 he was called to the University of Vienna as professor of rhetoric, next receiving the professorship of the laws of the Empire, and not till 1528 the coveted chair of Greek literature, in addition to which he still retained that of jurisprudence. His disapproval of the Lutheran movement was now most pronounced, partially as a result of a more profound study of the Church Fathers; he was particularly exercised over the disastrous influence of Lutheranism on educational activities. On the appearance of the Turks before Vienna (1529) he fled to his native city, where he remained for a consider- able period of time. The succeeding years are marked by his editions of the Fathers and the classics. Often in poor health, he died at the prime of life, leaving only a verj' extensive library, as his material re- sources had at all times been meagre. His writings give no clear conception of his intellectual importance which his contemporaries found so noteworthy. Among his works of independent authorship are: "Oratio ad principes post obi turn Maximiliani "

(1519); "Ccesar" (1519); "In divimi Carolum electiun Romanorum regem" (1519); and other occasional poems and addresses. These do not rise above the average level of the occasional literature of human- ism. No subtler meaning and no original or striking thoughts are concealed under the mediocre forms of expression. For the history of the L'niversity of Vienna, on the contrary, Brassicanus is of great im- portance, being numbered among the most vigorous representatives of the humanist movement.

Among the editions issued by Brassicanus, the following are particularly well known: "Luciani Samosatensis Tragoedis" (1527); Salviani, " De vero judicio et providentia" (Basle, 1530); Gennadius, "De sineeritate christians fidei dialogus seu de via salutis humanae" (A'ienna, 1530); "Enchiridion de christianarum rerura memoria sive epitome historian ecclesiasticEe per Eusebiimi descriptae auctore Hay- mone" (Hagenau, 1531); "Salonii Dialogiduo" (ibid., 1532); Pothonis, "De statu domus Dei" and "De magna domo sapientia? " (ibid., 1532).

Johann Ludwig Brassicanus, younger brother of Johann Alexander (b. at Tiibingen, 1509; d. at Vienna, 3 June, 1549) went to Vienna with his brother in 1524 and likewise won distinction both as a philologist and jurist. He spent some time in the service of Sigmimd von Herberstein and Nicolaus Olah, and obtained the title of coiu-t historiographer of the Roman King, after which he studied law at Heidelberg (after 1532). Ha\-ing been professor of Greek in Vienna for a short time (1534) and likewise in Padua, where in 1536 he was made doctor iuris, he was appointed professor of the Institutes at Vienna in 1537, and later professor of canon law. King Ferdinand summoned him to his council, at the same time granting him letters patent of nobility and a coat of arms. He was twice rector of the university and four times dean. In 1544 he was made provincial superintendent, achieving considerable reputation as a public official. He seldom ^\Tote anything for publication, and left only a few addresses and treatises on legal subjects.

The best source of information for Johann Alexander Brassicanus is his letters, most of which are still luipublished (Imperial Library of Vienna, cod. 9705 and 9737), likewise a volume of collected letters in the Mimich Library: extracts from both by Hor.\witz in Sitzungsberichte der Wiener Akademie, phil.-hist. Kla.ise. LXXXVf, 274 sqq., LXXXIX, 188 sqq.. XCIII. 425 sqq. Cf. AscHB.\cH, Gesch. der Wiener Univ., Ill, 126-135: Kin'K, Gesch. der kaiserlichen Univ. Wien (Vienna. 1854), I. Pt. 11, 139: Dollinqer, Die Reformation, I, 525: Hefele in Kirchenlex., II, 1206 sqq.; Hurter, Nomen^ clalor (3d ed., Innsbruck, 1906), ll, 1275 sqq.; H.tRTL .iND ScHR.\uF. Nachtrdge [supplements] zum 3. Band von J. Asch- bachs Gesch. der Univ. Wien (Vienna. 1S98). 43-128: Herme- LiNK. Die theotoff. Facultat der TObin^en vor der Reformation (Tubingen. 1900), 175.

Joseph Sauer.

Braulio, S.\int, Bishop of Saragossa, date of birth unknown; d. at Saragossa c. 651. In 631 he succeeded his brother John, whose archdeacon he had been, in the episcopal See of Saragossa. His in- fluence extended not only to the bishops, but also to the Kings of Spain. In one of his letters (no. xxxvii) he urged King Chindaswinth to appoint a co-regent in the person of his son Receswinth. To his insist- ence with his friend Isidore of Seville, is due the in- ception and completion of the hitter's "Libri Ety- mologiarum". Braulio was present at the synods held in Toledo in 633, 636, and 638. The members of the last-mentioned council selected him to write an answer to Pope Honorius I, who had reproached the Spanish bishops with negligence in the perform- ance of their pastoral duties. Braulio in his letter (no. xxi) cleverly and fearlessly defended the con- duct of the Spanish episcopate. Towards the end of his life, he complained bitterly of the loss of his eyesiglit. He was buried in the clnu'ch of Nuestra Seiiora Merced del Pilar, where his tomb was dis- covered in 1290. His feast is celebrated in Spain