stituted several reforms, notable among which were the opening of all Brazilian ports to the commerce of the world and the decree of lb January, 1815, de- claring Brazil to be no longer a colony, but an integral part of the Kingdom of Portugal. Soon after this, the prince regent succeeded to the throne as Dom Joao VI. Revolutionary troubles in Portugal, in 1820, making it necessary for Dom Joao to return thither, he appointed his son Dom Pedro, a young man of twenty-three, "Lieutenant to the King" and set sail for Portugal in 1821. From that time the Portuguese Cortes began to regard Brazil with anxiety; Dom Pedro was considered as more Brazil- ian than Portuguese. Revolutionary disturbances, moreover, had broken out in several of the pro^■inces, notably in Pernanibuco and Bahia. To check the growing power of Brazil, measures were passed detrimental to her interests, and tending to a revival of colonial conditions. As the Brazilian members of the Cortes were greatly in the minority, their resist- ance could not be effective. Matters came to a crisis when the Cortes finally ordered Dom Pedro to return to Portugal. The Brazilians rallied and besought him to ignore the order. Realizing his opportunity, Dom Pedro struck the first blow for independence, his decision being received with the greatest en- thusiasm. The few Portuguese troops stationed in the country made but a half-hearted resistance, and on the 12th of October, 1822, Dom Pedro was pro- claimed Emperor and Perpetual Defender of Brazil.
A popular assembly was convened in May, 1823, and a message from the emperor was read proposing many liberal ideas to be embodied in the forthcoming constitution. But discontented spirits raised such bitter opposition in the assembly that the emperor dissolved it. He later appointed a committee of ten to draft the constitution, and it was finally adopted 24 March, 1825. Dom Pedro's popularity, however, soon began to wane. He produced the impression of not being truly Brazilian at heart, by his employ- ment of a foreign force, by his continual interference in the affairs of Portugal, and especially Dy his ap- pointment of Portuguese to the highest offices, to the exclusion of natives. The Brazilians became dis- gusted at seeing their government conducted by foreigners, and soon they were in open rebellion. After vain attempts to suppress the revolution, the emperor abdicated (7 April, 1831) in favour of his six-year-old son, Dom Pedro de Alcantara, and sailed away to Portugal.
The government was now placed in the hands of a regency, consisting at first of three members and later of a single individual. In 1840, when the young emperor had reached the age of fifteen, it was pro- posed by those who had become disgusted at the abuses of the regency, that the minority of Dom Pedro II be declared expired, in spite of the fact that the constitution had fixed the minority of the em- peror at eighteen years. After a heated and acri- monious debate, the regency was abolished, and the young emperor placed in full possession of the throne (23 July, 1840). The new government had trouble at intervals with the Republican party, notably in 1848; but these risings were easily sup- pressed. In 1851 Brazil took an active part in thwarting tin; designs of the Argentine dictator, Rosas, who sought to seize Uruguay and Paraguay. Rosas was driven from the country and had to take refvige in England. In 1853 a decree was issued for- bidding the importation of slaves. Yellow fever, \uitil then unknown in Brazil, had made its appear- ance a short time before, and it was thought that the disease had been brought into the country by the slaves. In 1855 a fleet was sent to settle a dispute with Paraguay, concerning Brazil's right of way upon the ParansI River, the claim of Brazil being based upon the fact that the river has its origin within her
boundaries. The expedition was imsuccessful, and for ten years thereafter Brazil was hampered by many restrictions. In 1864 an outrage against Brazil on the part of Seiior Lopez, the dictator of Paraguay, precipitated a conflict between Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay on one side and Paraguay on the other. A bitter struggle now ensued, Para- guay offering a stubborn resistance which ended only with the death of Lopez in battle in 1870. Brazil, bearing the brunt of the war on her side, lost many thousands of men and a vast amount of money.
In 1871 the death-blow was given to slavery in Brazil by a decree providing that every child there- after born of slave parents should be free. Slavery had been greatly checked since the decree of 1853 prohibiting the importation of slaves, so that, with this new law in force, it was not long before slavery came to an end in the country. On 1 May, 1886, the Princess Isabelle, regent of Brazil while the emperor was in Europe, proclaimed the abolition of slavery.
The fact that Dom Pedro reigned for nearly fifty years would indicate that he was liberal-minded, progressive, and enlightened, and that he was well liked by the people. But the work of freemasonry and the loss the planters suffered by the emancipa- tion of their slaves created a spirit of disaffection. The outcome was that, after a bloodless revolution (15 November, 1889), Dom Pedro was deposed, and a Republic was proclaimed, with General Deodoro da Fonseca as head of the provisional government. A decree was issued continuing the imperial civil list and granting Dom Pedro a subsidy of $2,500,000, both of which offers were refused by him. On the fol- lowing day (16 November) Dom Pedro and his family set sail for Portugal. The new Constitution, modelled upon that of the United States, was promulgated 23 June, 1890, and in February of the following year General Fonseca was elected president of the new republic. But before the end of that year his arbi- trary methods precipitated a revolutionary move- ment in Rio de Janeiro, and he was compelled to resign. He was succeeded by the vice-president, General Peixoto. In 1893, a revolt, headed by Admirals Da Garaa and Mello, was started; but it was of short duration. Rio de Janeiro was blockaded by the rebels, but the revolution collapsed soon after. In 1894 Peixoto was succeeded by Dr. Prudente de Moraes, who was called upon to face still another uprising, in 1897, under the leadership of Antonio Conseilheiro. After a few months this trouble also was crushed. In 1898 Dr. Campos Salles, who had been active in republican politics, succeeded to the presidential chair; Dr. Francisco Rodrigues Alves succeeded him 15 November, 1902, and Affonso Penna assumed office 15 November, 1906.
Kidder and Ff etcher. Brazil and the Brazilians (IS57): Aga.ssiz, Joumei/ in Brazil (1868); Levasseur. Le Bresil (1889); KosTER, Travels in Brazil (1817); Hartt, Geology and Physical Geography of Brazil (1870); Uniled States Bureau of American Republics, Bulletin No. 7 (1901 ): Southey, History of Brazil (1810-19): Varnhagen. Historia Geral da Brazil (1855); Da Silva, Historia do funda^o do imperio brazileiro (5 vols., 1864-82); Galanti, Compendia de Historia do Brazil (4 vols., 1896); Giron y Arcas, La Situacii^m Juridica de la Iglesta Lat"iica en los Diversos Estados de Europa y America (190.')): Widder in Buchberger. Kirchliches Handlexikon (1907): Konversationa Lexikon (190.3): Schlitz in Klimmim nus Maria-Loach (Freiburg im Br., 1906), LXX, No. 5.
Bread, Liturgical Use op. — In the Christian liturgy bread is used principally as one of the elements of the Eucharistic sacrifice. Our Divine Lord con- secrated bread and wine at the Last Supper, and com- manded His disciples to do the same in commemora- tion of Him, and thus ever since bread made of wheaten flour has been offered at the altar for the officiating priest to con.socrate into the Body of the Lord. It is a debated question whether Christ used leavened or unleavened bread at the institution of