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BRESCIA


760


BRESCIA


tano's work; his style is marred by frequent and dis- agreeable eccentricities. When he T\nshes to be naive, he ofien becomes merely cliildish. His poetic gifts, llO\ve^■er, are undeniably of a high order; some of his IjTic poems (e. g. "Lied der Spinnerin", "An eine Kranke") are among the best of their kind. But he lacked self-control and dissipated his great literary talents. His collected ^^Titings. edited by his brother Christian, appeared at Frankfort in nine volumes (1851-55).

Selections with biographical and critical introduction edited by M\x Koch in Kurschxer, Deutsche Nationetl Litteratur, vol. CXLVI, and by Diel (Freiburg im Br.. 1873, 2 vols.); GtJlDO GoRRES (ed.). Marchen (2 vols.. Stuttgart and Tu- bingen, 1846); DiEL, Clemens Brentano, Ein Lebensbild, suppL and ed. by Kreiten (2 vols. Freiburg im Br., 1S77); John- son in The Catholic World Magazine (New York, 1899) L, 61- 71.

Arthur F. J. Remt.

Brescia, Diocese of, takes its name from the principal city in the province of the same name in Lorabardy, between the Jlella and the Na\'iglio. The city of Brescia contains 60,000 inhabitants and is of great commercial importance. It was founded by the Gauls, and in 197 B. c. was captured by the Romans, who called it Brixia. When, in 312, Con- stantino advanced against Maxentius, an engage- ment took place at Brescia in which the enemy was forced to retreat as far as Verona. During the in- vasion of the Huns under Attila, the city was be- sieged. In 774 Charlemagne captured it from the Lombards.

The Bishops of Brescia received the title of Count from Louis II, and in consequence became civil rulers of the city and the countship. Many struggles followed, however, in particular after Arduin Lord Marcher of Ivrea, who had proclaimed himself King of Italy (1002), had slain the bishop of this city for holding allegiance to Emperor Henrj' II. Henry, to ensure the fidelity of the citizens of Brescia, was obliged to confirm the civil liberty granted them by Arduin, which is the origin of the commune of Brescia. In the successive struggles between the Lombard cities and the emperors, Brescia was im- plicated in some of the leagues and in all of the up- risings against them. Memorable in the history of these conflicts is the siege laid to Brescia by Fred- erick II in 1238 on account of the part taken by this city in the battle of Cortenova (27 November, 1237). Brescia came through this assault victorious. After the fall of the imperial house of Swabia republican institutions declined at Brescia, as well as in the other free cities and the leadership was contested between several powerful families, chief among them the Maggi and the Brusati, the latter of the Ghibelline party. In 1311 Henrj- VII laid siege to Brescia for six months, losing three-fourths of his army. Later the Scaligeri of \erona, aided by the exiled Ghibel- lines, sought to place Brescia under subjection. The citizens of Brescia then had recourse to John of Luxemburg; Mastino II della Scala, however, ex- pelled the governor appointed by him. His masten,-, in turn, was soon contested by the Visconti of Milan, but not even their rule was undisputed, as Pandolfo Malatesta in 1406 took possession of the city, but in 1416 bartered it to Filippo Visconti, who in 1426 sold it to the Venetians. The Milanese nobles, how- ever, forced Filippo to resume hostilities against the Venetians, and thus to attempt the recovery of this city, but he ^vas defeated in the battle of Maclodio (1427), near Brescia. In 1439 Bre-scia was once more besieged by Francesco Sforza, captain of the Venetians, who conquered Piccinino, Filippo's condotticre. Thenceforward Brescia acknowledged the authority of Venice, with the exception of the years between 1512 and 1520, when it was occupied by the French armies. From 1796 it shared the fortunes of the republic.


The Bishop of Brescia is suffragan to the Arch- bishop of Milan. Legend traces tiie beginnings of Christianity in Brescia to St. Barnabas, who is said to have made St. Anatolus bishop. However. Milan also claims Anatolus as its first bishop, consecrated by St. Barnabas. In any case, the Faith was prob- ably brought to Brescia by way of Milan. During the reign of Hadrian, Brescia was the scene of the martyrdom of Sts. Faustinus and Jovita (cf. Acta S3., 15 February). From the time of the persecutions tradition mentions the names of several bishops, but nothing authentic is known concerning them. In the fourth century there was the celebrated St. Philastrius, a most zealous champion of orthodoxy against heresy, of whom it is related that he con- verted many pagans. He was succeeded by St. Gaudentius, consecrated by St. Ambrose (c. 387). who erected outside the city walls the church .-l ' Concilia Sanctorum, in which the holy matron Sih-ia was buried later. A great number of the bishops who ruled this diocese from the fourth to the seventh centuries are Inscribed on the rolls of the saints, e. g. St. Paul, St. Theophilus, St. Silvinus, St. Gaudiosus, St. Ottapianus, St. Vigilius, St. Hercalanus, St. Po- terius, St. Anastasius (610), who built the church of San Pietro, and made it the cathedral, and St. Dominic (613), who with the many gifts he received from Queen Theodolinda, erected the church called the Rotonda. Bishop Ramperto brought to Brescia the Benedictines, who constructed a church to which they transferred the relics of Sts. Faustinus and Jo\-ita; he also took part in the Council of Mantua of 827. Notingus (844) was the first bishop who bore the title of Count. Landolfo II (1007) built the church of Santa Eufemia outside the walls.

During the episcopate of Manfredo Lucciaga (1133), Arnold of Brescia disseminated his teachings, with the result that the governors of the city all but confiscated the property of the churches of Brescia. Alberto Rezzato (1213) had the Paterines to contend against; he also brought many relics from the Holy Land. Blessed Gualla Ronio (1229), of the Friars Preachers, was distinguished for his virtue. Berardo Maggi (1275), a Guclph, was made Duke and Count of the city, and constructed among other works two canals diverting the waters of the Rivers Chiese and Mella, in order to furnish the motive force for many factories. Tommaso Visconti (1388) did much for the maintenance of discipline among the clergy. Un- der Bishop Francesco de' Mareri (1418), the preach- ing of St. Bernardino of Siena wTought a great moral reform in the city of Brescia. Pietro dal Monte (1442) adorned the episcopal palace, erected a hospital, and ■nTOte various works. Paolo Zane (1481) built the shrine of Santa Maria delle Grazie and established the hospital for incurables. In the sixteenth century three cardinals succeeded each other: Francesco Cornaro (1532), Andrea Cornaro (1.543), and Durante de' Duranti (1551). Domenico Bollani (1559) con- vened a diocesan sjTiod (1574) in conformity with the decree of the Council of Trent, and foimded the seminary. Giovanni Dolfin (1579) seconded St. Charles Borromeo in his work of reform, and that saint by his own desire celebrated the obsequies of Bishop Dolfin. Bishop Pietro Ottoboni (1654) was later elevated to the chair of St. Peter under the name of Alexander VIII. Cardinal Alb. Badoaro (1706) was a very zealous pastor, combating in an especial manner the Quietism which had infected his diocese. Cardinal Angelo M. Quirini (1727) was a man of great learning; he founded the library of the commune, which took its name from him, and did much towards the restoration of the cathedral. During the episcopate of Giovanni Nani (1773) the French in\'asion took place, mth the attendant pil- laging of churches and convents.

The most important churches of the city have