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houses of the Brigittines of the Recollection: Valla- dolid founded in 1651, Vittoria founded in 1653, Lasarte and Parades de Nava in 1671, and Ascoytia in 1690.

Flavigw. Stc. Brigitte de Suede; BuHNs, Syon Abbey: MS. copy of the Rule of St. Bridget; History of the English Brigiltine Xuns (Plymouth. 1887); Bildt, Swedish Memories and Traces in Rome; Hei.yot, Histfrire des ordres monastiques, IV, 25-49; HEiMBurnER. Ord, u. Kon{jr. der kath. Kirche.

FnAXCESCA M. Steele.

Brignon, Johx. b. at Saint Male in 1629; d. at Paris, 12 June, 1712. He was a member of the Society of Jesus and occupied during the sixty-five years of liis religious Ufe claiefly in the translation of works of piety into Frendi. Among these are the works of De Ponte and Nieremberg, the "Spiritual Combat", the "Imitation of Christ, and the short treatises of Bellarmine. All these translations have passed through a number of editions. He also edited and revised "The Devout Life of St. Francis De Sales and the "Fondements" of Pere Sunn, S.J. The only English works he translated into French are the "Decern Rationes" of Blessed Ed- mund Campion and the "Tractatus de Misericordia fidelibus defunctis exhibenda" by Father Mumford,

Bibl. de la c. de Jisus. XI. col. 166; Diet, de theol. calh.. I, col. 1131.

S. H. Frisbee.

Bril, P.\ULUs, a brilliant Flemish painter and engraver, b. at Antwerp, 15.56; d. in Rome, 7 October, 1626. He first studied with Damiaen Oertelmans, a member of the guild of St. Luke in his native city. Fired by the news of the success of his brother Matthys, in Rome, he left his parents secretly and started for that city. He was detained at Lyons by lack of funds, and worked there in order to be able to continue his journey. At Rome he studied with his brother, but found his best inspira- tion later in the copies he made of the landscapes of Titian. With these as a basis he developed a vigorous and individual style of his own, the mani- festations of which are said to have led greatly to the development of landscape art by their influence on Rubens, Annibale Carraeci, and Claude Lorraine. He assisted his lirother in his works at the Vatican, and on the deatli of the latter (b. about 1548, d. 1584) he continued his labours. Pope Gregory XIII gave him his brother's pension, and confided to him the work which they had jointly undertaken.

Bril's principal production in the Vatican is a landscape in fresco sixty-eight feet long, ordered by Pope Clement VIII for the Sala Clementina, in which appears St. Clement, with an anchor fastened to his neck, being cast into the sea. Bril worked in the Sistine Chapel, in Santa Maria Mag- giore, and in the chapel of the Scala Santa in St. John Lateran. He introduced figures in his land- scapes with much success, but in some of them appear compositions of Annibale Carraeci. His "Duck Hunt", "Diana and Nymphs", "Fisher- men", "Pan and Syrinx", "St. Jerome in Prayer", and three otlicr landscapes are in the Louvre. His "Prodigal Son" is in the Antwerp Museum, and his "St. Paul in the Desert", "Boar Hunt", and "Triumph of Psyche" in the I'ffizi at Florence. His works appear in number in all the principal European galleries.

I.Obkk. niatory of .\rt (tr. New York. 1881).

Augustus van Cleef. Brillmacher, Peter Michael, b. at Cologne in 1542; d. at Mainz, 25 August, 1.595. He entered the Society of Jesus in 1,558, and studied under Maldona- tus, in Paris. Later he returned to Cologne, where, by his diplomatic skill, he rendered invaluable aid to the German princes in affairs of state. His eloquence attracted multitudes, thwarted the efforts of the .so- <-alled reformers, and made such deep inroads in their

ranks that they determined upon his death. Inviting him to a banquet on pretence of debating disputed doctrines, they mingled poison with his food thus accomplishing his end.

Brillmaclier took an active part in the controversies so frequent in his day and was fearless in his attacks upon here-sy. An instance of his alertness in the de- tection of heresy is that of the cur€ of Notre Dame of Cologne, Stephen Isaac, a converted Jew, who, in 1589, preadiing on the Holy Eucharist, advanced ar- guments which tended to compromise rather than substantiate the doctrine. Brillmacher immediately published his "Controversiarum de Eucliaristia Dia- logi, in which lie advanced all the arguments which had been brought for and against the Real Presence, Transubstantiation, etc. In the third of these dia- logues he so clearly exposed the duplicity of Isaac that the latter was forced openly to a\ow liis apostasy to Calvinism. In a public letter to John of Munster, Lsaac vilified the Jesuit and called forth the latter's second work, " Detectio Erroris Joannis a Munster '. followed shortly by another "Exceptio Prodronii Cal- viniana" (1.592, in Latin and German) and still later (1.593) by "Epistola ad Amicum". The widespread publication and popularity of overwl.clmed his adversaries and won back to the Faith nuiiiy "ho liad been deceived by the specious arguments of the here- tics. Brillmacher's " Catechismus" first published in 1586, ran through various editions (Latin, German, and Flemish), and was the foundation of many simi- lar works. He also wrote; "Serta Honoris" (various editions in Latin and German, 1565 to 1713) and two early publications "De Communione sub alterd Specie" and "Commentarium in Aristotelis Logiea".

De B.irKER, I, 886-888; Sommervogel, Bibliotheqiu, II. 182-186.

T. J. Young.

Brindholm (or Bryndeholme), Edmund, Ven- erable, martyr and parish priest of Our Lady's Church at Calais, accused of being concerned in a plot to betray Calais to the French. It was said that Sir Gregory Botolf, chaplain to Lord Li.sle, Governor of Calais, had been to Rome on this business, and had requested the pope to grant a living in the English Hospital of St. Thomas to Brindholm, who was about to go to Rome when he was arrested. There seems, however, no evidence that he was really concerned in any plot. He was examined 11 April, 1540, and was attainted in the Parliament of that year, to- gether with "Clement Philpott late of Calais, gentle- man, who have adhered to the King's enemy, the of Rome, and assisted Raynold Poole [Cardi- nal Pole], an abominable and arrogant traitor, coin- pas.sing the surprise of the town of Calais". He suffered, together with Philpott, the Bles.sed William Home, a Carthusian lay brother, and others, at Ty- burn, 4 August, 1540.

Letters and Papers Henry VIII (1540), XV, No. 495, sqq.; Hoi.ixshed, Chroniclr, III, 952.

Bede Camm.

Brindisi, Diocese of. — Brindisi, called by the Romans Brundusium or Brundisium, by the Greeks Bp«Ti)ffio>', is a city in the province of Leece, in Apulia, on a rocky peninsula which extends into the .\driatic. In ancient times it was very impor- tant as a seaport, being accessible in all winds. In 245 B. c. the Romans captured Brindisi without strik- ing a blow and established a Roman colony there. This city was one terminal of the Via Appia. In the civil wars between Ciesar and Pompey Brindisi was the base of naval operations. Brindisi was the birth- place of the poet Pacuvius; here also Virgil died in 19 B. c, on liis return from Greece. During the in- vasions of the barbarians it was taken and destroyed several times, but was always rebuilt within a short space of time, so that as late as the twelfth century it had a population of 60,000, which lias since dwin-