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BRISTOW


791


BRITISH


of Gloucester and Worcester, with three churches in Bristol, which had belonged to Bath and Wells. The arms of the see were sable, three ducal crowns in pale or. The dedication was changed at the dissolution from St. Augustine to the Holy Trinity. Heylyn. Catalogue of the Bishops (1709 ed.); Hyett and Bazeley, Bibliographer's Manual of Gloucestershire Literature (1895-97): Masse. The Cathedral Church of Bristol and a Brief History of the Episcopal 5ee(1901): Pryce, History of Bristol (1861); NicHOLLS AND Taylor. Bristol Past and Present (1881- 82); Evans, History of Bristol (1824).

Edwin BnRTON.

Bristow, Richard, b. at Worcester, 153S, d. at Harrow-on-the-Hill, 1581. He went to the Uni- versity of Oxford in 1.555, probably as a member of Exeter College, though Wood doubts this. In 1559 he took bis Bachelor's degree and proceeded to the degree of Master of Arts as a member of Christ Church, in 1.562. He was exceptionally brilliant and elocjuent and so esteemed as an orator that, with the cele- brated Edmund Campion, he was chosen to hold a public disputation before Queen Elizabeth in 1.566. Shortly afterwards, ha\-ing applied himself to theol- ogj' and acquired a wide reputation for his learning, he was made a Fellow of Exeter College (1567) by the interest of Sir William Petre, who had founded several fellowships there. His great ability would probably have won further promotion for him had not his religious opinions undergone a change, an indication of which was given in his argument vnth the Regius Professor of Divinity, whom he confuted. Two years after his appointment to the fellowship he left Oxford and proceeded to Louvain, where he met William (afterwards Cardinal) Allen. Recog- nizing his marked talent Allen secured him for his new college at Douai and appointed him its first prefect of studies. He was Allen's "right hand upon all occasions", acting as rector when he wa,s absent and when the college was transferred (1578) to Reims.

Bristow is best known, however, a.s an earnest student, a powerful controversial \vriter, and, with Allen, as one of the revisers of the Douay Bible. His intense labours, while they earned foT him the lasting gratitude of Catholics, told upon a constitu- tion naturally weak, and he was obliged to relinquish his work in 1581. In May of the same year he went to Spa, but having obtained no advantage there he was advised, after two months, to return to England. This he did in September, staying until his death (18 October) with Mr. Jerome Bellamy, a Catholic of means, at Harrow-on-the-Hill. By his death the Catholic cause lost a zealous champion and a learned advocate. The Douai records speak of him in the highest terms as rivalling Allen in prudence. Staple- ton in acumen, Campion in eloquence, Wright in theology, and Martin in languages. He wrote: (1) "A Briefe Treatise of diuerse and sure wayes to finde out the truthe in this doubtful and dangerous time of Hercsie: conteyning sundry worthy Motives vnto the Catholic faith, or considerations to moue a man to belcue the Catholikes and not the Here- tikes" (Third edition entitled "Motives inducing to the Catholike Faith"); (2) "Tabula in Summam Theologicam S. Thoms Aquinatis"; (3) "A Reply to Will. Fulke " ; (4) "Demandes to be proponed of Catholikes to the Heretikes " ; (5) "A Defence of the Bull of Pope Pius V"; (fi) "Annotations on the Rheims translation of the New Testament " ; (7) "Carmina Diversa"; (8) "Motiva Omnibus (^atholica- Doctrinje Orthodoxis Cviltoribus per- neccssaria", the last two being in manuscript.

Wfiiti MiN<;-rr>N, f'ompnitliujn V it"- Auctfris (prefixed to Mutiia); Kicmls of llu- Knulish Catliolics. I, II; Douu, Church f/istoru of ICniilaml, ed. 'Iierney (London, 184.3); Gir.Low, Bit)t. Dii-t. I'Jnt/. Cath.; Wood, Athertfv Oxonienses; Pits, De Anrjlir SrriptoriinLS.

Fu.\NCIS AvELING.

British Columbia is the westernmost province of the Dominion of Canada. Territorially, it is also the


largest, being 357,600 square miles in extent. It is composed of the mainland and islands. Prominent among the latter are Vancouver and Queen Charlotte Islands. The mainland is bounded on the south by the States of Washington and Idaho, on the east by the summits of the Rocky Mountain as far as a point where they meet the line of 120th degree of longitude, thence by that line to the 60th degree of latitude, the northern limit of the province. On the west it ex- tends as far as the Pacific Ocean, except north of Portland Canal, where a narrow strip of coast land and a group of important islands form a part of Alaska.

Physical Characteristics. — British Columbia has been called a sea of mountains, and this designa- tion is fairly accurate, save perhaps for some forty miles on either side of the Chilcotin River, where are to be found rolling or tolerably level plateaux at least 3,000 feet above the sea and covered with ex- cellent bunch grass. They are more or less open and the remainder of the province might be described as a continuous forest of conifers, interspersed here and there with deciduous trees and dotted at long in- tervals with natural prairies. The mountains are too numerous for emmieration. The principal ranges are the Lillooet mountains in the south-west, the Cariboo and the Babine mountains in the north-eastern and north-western interiors respectively, north of which numberless sierras connect the Rockies with the Cascade or Coast range, a chain of steep and rugged mounts that run parallel to the former. Between the.se many evidences of ancient physical upheavals lie either fertile valleys or deep, long, and narrow lakes. The latter are to be found especially in the northern interior. Prominent among them are lakes Babine, which covers an area of some 196,000 acres; Tatla, 152,000; Morice, 148,000; Stuart, 142,000; French, 140,000; Chilco, 109,760, and many others almost as large. In the south are lakes Kootenay, with an estimated area of 141,120 acres, Okanagan, 86,240, and Harrison, 78,400, Most of these sheets of Waaler give rise to, or are drained by, rivers which in the spring assume generally the nature of torrents. The chief watercourses of the province are the Eraser River, with the Nechaco, the Quesnel, and the Thompson as tributaries; the Skeena, the Nass, and the Stickine in the north-west; the Finlay and its continuation, the Peace, with their tributary, the Parsnip, in the north-east, while the south-eastern corner is drained by the upper Columbia.

Resources. — These streams, especially the Eraser and Skeena, are yearly ascended by immense shoals of salmon of the genus oncorhynchus , which are a great source of revenue, while the vast forests of the coast and southern interior, composed mostly of red cedar (thui/a gigantea), fir (pseudolsuga Douglassii) and various species of spruce, are likewise the objects of remunerative industries. The country's most valu- able treasures are, however, under ground, being found in the shape of minerals of which the following represents the [iroduction for 1906: copper, $8,288,565; gold, $5,579,039; lead, $2,667,578; silver, $1,897,320; other materials, $1,000,000. For the .same period of time Vancouver IslantI and parts of the mainland yielded coal and coke to the value of .'S5,54S,044, though it is well known that vast deposits of the same exist on the mainland, which only awaits capital to become protluctive. As to agriculture, it takes a rather .secondary place in British Columbia; yet it is by no means neglected. In the valley of the lower Fra.ser and in the districts of Okanagan, Kam- loops, Lillooet, etc., fruit-raising is considerctl more remunerative. Ap|)lrs and pears of all kinds, peaches, tomatoes, and smaller fruit grow to perfection. From a climatologic.'d standpoint, extremes are to be found within the broad limits of the province. The coast enjoys an almost constantly mild, though wet,