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published separately as brochures and widely circu- lated among the people. In his "Opus Trivium" he arranges for the convenience of preachers various topics drami from theologj', civil and canon laws. This work wa.s later on edited by Philip Bromyard, and hence some maintain, but witliout reason, that he was the real author.

QcETlF AXD EcH.\RD, S5. O.P., I. 700; Lelaxd, Commen- tarium de Scripioribus Briiannicis. 356; Schulte, Geschichte der Quellen und Litteratur des canonKchen Rechts, II, 880, 561; Miller in Did. Nat. Biog., VI, 405.

Thos. M. Schwertner.

Brondel, John B.\ptist, first Bishop of Helena, Montana, V. S. A., b. at Bruges, Belgium, 23 Feb- ruary, 1842; d. at Helena, 3 November, 1903. He was educated at the American College of the Uni- versity of Lou vain and ordained priest at MechUn, Belgium, by Cardinal Engelbert Sterclcs (17 Decem- ber, 1864). Two years later he volunteered for the missions in the United States and was made rector of the church at Heilacoon, "\Va.shington Territorj', early in 1867. Here he remained for nearly ten years and wa.s then transferred to Walla Walla, but returned to his old charge the following year.

On 14 December, 1879, he was consecrated at Victoria, as third Bishop of Vancouver, British Colmnbia, in succession to Bishop Seghers, who had been made coadjutor to the Archbishop of Oregon City. Bishop Brondel retained this charge untU by a 'Bull of 7 AprU, 1883, he was appointed Administrator of the Vicariate of Montana. When the Diocese of Helena was formed he was trans- ferred to that see, 7 March, 1884, as its first bishop. During all his long and active career in this north- west section, he was particularly successful in his deahngs with the many Indians under his charge. They looked up to him as a father and protector, and his great popularity ampng the various tribes was not only of benefit to the Church, but was utilized on numerous occasions by the United States Government to further the political, material, and moral welfare of the Indians. His death was regarded as a great loss to the work of the evan- gelization anil ci\-iHzation of the Indians. He was bm-ied 7 November, 1903, in a vault under the cathe- dral in Helena.

Catholic \eus files (New York, Nov., 1903); Recss, Biog. Encyd. Cath. Hierarchy (Milwaukee, 1898); Catholic Di- rectory (Milwaukee, 1904).

Thoii.\s F. Meehajj.

Brookby (or Brorbet), Anthony, Friar Minor and English martjT; d. 19 July, 1537. Brookby was lecturer in divinity in Magdalen College, Oxford, was well versed in Greek and Hebrew, and enjoyed the reputation of being an eloquent preacher. At the command of King Henry VIII, who took offence at a sermon of Brookby's in which he attacked the king's actions and mode of li\'ing, he was appre- hended, put to the rack, and tortured in the most cruel manner in order to make him retract what he had said; but all to no purpose. Having been rendered wellnigh helpless as a result of his tortures, Brookby was charitably cared for by a pious woman for a fortnight until, by the conuuand of the king, an executioner strangled him to death with the Franciscan cord which he wore around his waist.

Stone, Faithful unto Death ^London, 1S92). iv, 76; P.ihkix- sos. Coll. .A.nglo-Minor. (London. 17261, 239; Thaddecs, The Franciicaru in England (London, 1898), III, 17; D.axielle, Martirio e Morte d'alcuni Frati di San Francesco, III, 16.

Stephen M. Donovan.

Brookes, J.^-Mes, last Catholic Bishop of Glouces- ter, England, b. May, 1512, in Hampshire; d. 1560. Proceeding to O.xford in 1528, he became Fellow of Corpus Christi in 1531, Doctor of Divinity, 1546, and Master of Balliol, 1547. Brookes was widely- known as an eloquent preacher, and, on the depo-

sition of Bishop Hooper, was elevated by Queen Marj' to the See of Gloucester. He was consecrated 1 April, 1554. In 1.555 he was one of the papal sub- delegates in the royal commission for the trial of Cranmer, Latimer, and Ridley. He refused to de- grade Ridlej', probably on the ground that Ridley's consecration (1547) had been according to the in- valid form wliich was established by law very soon after that date. If, as Foxe asserts, he refused to degrade Latimer, liis position may have been based upon the fact that Latimer had hved for several years as a simple clergjTnan. It is hardly possible that Brookes, a man of learning and integrity, would have been actuated in this trial by the selfish con- siderations hinted at by some Protestant historians. After the accession of Elizabeth he refused to take the oath of supremacy, and died in prison. He was buried in Gloucester Cathedral. Two of his orations in the Cranmer case are given in Foxe, "Acts and Monuments". One of his sermons was printed by Robert Coly, or Caly, in 1553 and 1554.

Gillow, Bibl. Diet. Eng. Cath.; Dodd-Tierney, Church History of England (London, 1846); LiNGiRn. Hitstory of Eng- land: Stone, Reign of Queen Mary (London, 1901); Pollard, Thomas Cranmer (1903); Phillips, The Extinction of the .ineient Hierarchy (London, 1905).

J. Vincent Crowne.

Brooklyn, Diocese of, comprises the counties of Kings, Queens, Nassau, and Suffolk, or all of Long Island, in the State of New York, U. S. A,, an area of 1,007 square miles. The population of Long Island is about 2,000.000, according to the State census of 1905, and of this, 600,000 are Catholics. The Catholics are mostly of Irish, German, and Italian birth or race, but as a matter of fact, in this island see there is now e\'ery week a perpetual Pentecfist. for the Gospel is preached to the faitliful in twelve lan- guages. Polish, French, Italian, German, Slav, Sj-rian, Greek, ilfllb

Hungarian. Lith- f^'

uanian , Scandi- /

navian, Bohemi- an, as well as EngUsh-s peak- ing Catholics, have special ministrations for their respective nationalities.

Long Island was known to the early Span- ish explorer Gomez and to Gordillo, a Ueu-

tenant of Vas- *!" „ _ '

J \ .UA„ Peter Turner, Organizer of the quez de AyUOn, pj^^T Catholic Congregation in

who in 1524-25 Brooklyn

reached this lati- tude and on the 29th of Jime noted this island, which they named "Isla de los Ap6stole8 " (Island of the Apostles) in honour of the feast day of the Apostles Peter and Paul. It is so styled in the Span- ish maps of Ribero, made in 1529. Settled later under the auspices of the Dutch West India Company (1636), there is scarcely a trace of Catholicism to be found during the period of the sway of that corpora- tion. It would be strange indeed were Catholics attracted to a community that refused to enclose their cemeteries because such were "relics of super- stitious observances", or to erect tombstones be- cause in doing so they might give the appearance of according to the ceremonies and requirements of