a word every Power, impatient in their zeal, thought to extend its own sphere of influence and its owu Sovereign Rights. Truly no trace of China appeared in their purview. This is clear from the action of Russia, who after the Chino-Japanese war, acting on the dictates of Public Law, compelled Japan to return Liao Tung to us. We even thanked Russia, not knowing (forgetful of the fact) that Russia openly occupied it hen^elf. This affair therefore not only aroused the anger of Japan, but stimulated the envious thoughts of England as well, so that England and Japan made an alliance. The ground of this alliance was resistance to Russia, but made under the hypocritical profession of the wish to protect China and maintain the peace of the Far East. Viewed in the light of this profession naturally the alliance between England and Japan did not contain within it any threat of the partition of China; and the peace of the Far East would be assured. But why ¥as it that not long after the Alliance was made, Japan must have a war with Russia? The Japanese went to war with Russia, because they had a grudge against the Russians who for a single sentence, made them lose Liao Tung, for which they had spent such trouble in the war. Since Russia did not permit of its occupation by Japan she ought not to have occupied it herself. That was a bit of pure cupidity on the part of Russia: and she built railways, opened mines, and planted soldiery there. When Japan saw the growing power of Russia gradually rising, pressing on Korea, fearing that it portended no good to herself, she imitated the Russian method, and demanded that according to the dictates of Public Law Russia withdraw her troops. From this arose the cause of the war between them. Judged from outward appearances it looks as though they all had the safety of China in view. But the real fact is that Russia did not want Japan to occupy Liao Tung because she wanted to occupy it herself. Japan did not want Russia to occupy Liao Tung because she feared sole occupation by Russia, and that she could not thereby do it herself. Don't you see from the terms of the treaty fixed on between them after the war? Does it not say that of the territory of Tung San Sheng, north of Kuan Cirong-tze all Rights whatsoever shall revert to Russia, and south of Kuan Cheng-tze all Rights whatsoever shall revert to Japan?
An examination of the treaty settled between Russia and Japan after the war shows that the limits of the spheres of influence of the two kingdoms in the Manchurian provinces have already been decided on. But only a comer of Manchuria has been mapped out. Will the Japanese be satisfied? Moreover the sphere of influence of each Great Power in China is most extensive, but it is Japan alone that has plainly told China that the province of Fukien must not be given to any other Power; she harbours resentment. Now that she has vanquished Russia, and obtained the rights over Manchuria she more than ever seeks to take advantage of this opportunity to extend herself, manifoldly, and to stretch out her influence to the regions of Chihli and Shan-