on. Early stinlents of Chinese adopted the 9aine method in deoling with phonetic comjKnuuls: the meaning element was called radical^ but they dared not called the terminatioit the vhondlc part, for it. wrmld be wrong to do 3o, and tliern exists no terunnatiou in Chinese corresponding to the inflected languages of Europe. But they called tluU element which was non-radical, the phonetic, Heuce Riulical is the element whicb gives ihe meaning. Phonetic is the element which indicates the sound. In the conventional term radiral, there oro cluuact^rs that sonietimeg give the sound, and sometimes tlic— meniunc-, nn<1 it mii" in>t be forgetten that the conventional list of 214 do not lill fuiicdoii of givitig the rneanitifjy as the root of uie word does in European languages in contnist to it^^ termination. For example take an easy an^l common radical 木. It is phonetic in 沐 and radicnl (root) in 柏 i.e. the raeaniiig elemont, Agtiiii 占 is phonetic in 沽； and radical, i.e. gives iu»lication of meaning in fit."
"Therefore to be clear on the point, it is well to remember that radicals and phonetics are not two categories of characters, specifically distinct. They are two categories of a certain number of cliaraetcrs which being neuter, are used in composition, either a>? radionls or as phonetics. Even the primitives are in composition, radicals or phonetic, nc^ordiiig to the case. They form a class by themselves only as elements formally indivisible: elements wldch being not composed, compose all others." (Wieger)
VARIATION IN THE SOUND OP WORDS, — It may be asked whether it is qui to correct to say thai pbniu'iics give t]jeir i?o，，，Kls to iho phonetie compounds, seeing that there is a great varijviion in the initials and finals to-dav in words evidently formed from Uie same phoDetic. It may be said that originally there was no variation in the sounds, but theHo. havo oropt in gradnnlly owing to dialectical flifl'erences. Dr. EiJkins says variations commence willi the sporadic novelty of fin individual, proceed from an indivuhial to the locality, aihl so on thro，】gh the nation." Again, "the desire to cmplmsize a si>ecial si^>ise 5s ihe cause of an inunense nu"iU'r of nations." Variaiiona are caosed I»y the Mcarincss of consiant repetition ； i>eopIe de^re a dmnge or modification, in the configumtion of the vocal organs. The mnsoles fiivl rest in change." "A povwuful cniise of vniiittion," is foufid, "in objects of tiionj^ht. A new a^prot is observed in the i<leii and this must 1x3 symbolized by a new modilication ii Iho sm】m】." Limitation of pen so is also a cause, as well as "the ctlc-ct of fashion,*' Finally there is the desire to improve sound.
It mu.^t be rcmcinbored that the livnpuago luis Ix^cn sj>okei» in a wide area. Owinf^ t.o ditTerences of t limate, soil jn.ul fix u] and water '！ i:ile(、tic variations would appear. Hence in linip the one phonetic wouM luive divci« (？ 3'、，】'uis. Even in the