devoted his chief efforts. The draft of the covenant was cabled to the United States, prior to the return of the President for a brief visit. He arrived in Boston on February 24. Opposition to the covenant had already developed, chiefly from a group of Republican Senators, who asserted that it violated the sovereignty of the United States and repudiated the Monroe Doctrine. The chief article singled out for attack was Article 10, which pledged the United States “to preserve, as against external aggressions, the territorial integrity of all the States in the League.” President Wilson returned to Paris early in March, after having delivered several speeches in support of the Treaty of the Covenant. On the signing of the Treaty on June 28, 1919, the President at once embarked for the United States, arriving on July 9.
On July 1, 1919, the prohibition of the sale of intoxicating liquors went into effect in the United States, as a result of the ratification of the 19th amendment to the Constitution by three-fourths of the States. By the terms of the provisions, however, the amendment was not effective until January, 1920.
The Peace Treaty was considered by
the Committee on Foreign Relations in
the Senate, and on the report of the
committee on September 28, it was found
to contain 38 amendments and four
reservations. The amendments were rejected
and the chief interest centered upon the
reservations. These, in the main, covered
the same ground as the amendments.
The first provided that the United States
should have the right to withdraw from
the League of Nations “upon a notice
provided in Article I of said Treaty of
Peace with Germany.” The second
reservation absolved the United States from
any obligation in Article 10 “to preserve
the territorial integrity or political
independence of any other country.” The
third reservation provided that the
United States should have a right to
decide what questions were within its
domestic jurisdiction. In the fourth
reservation, the United States declined to
submit for arbitration or inquiry any
questions depending on, or related to, the
" These reservations
were debated in the Senate. The Treaty
was defeated with the reservations, by
a vote of 55 to 39, and without the
reservations, by a vote of 55 to 38. No further
consideration of the Treaty was given
during the remainder of this session of
Congress. On April 30, Senator Knox
introduced a resolution providing for a
declaration of peace with Germany. This
resolution was adopted by both the House
and the Senate on May 27, 1920, but was
vetoed by the President.
Congress passed a comprehensive bill for the conduct and regulation of railroads. (See Railways.) Various measures were taken during December, 1919, and the following months for the suppression of anarchistic and communistic propaganda in the United States. Raids were made upon the headquarters of radical societies throughout the country, and many of the leaders were taken for the purpose of deportation. In December, about 300 anarchists, the most conspicuous of whom were Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman, were deported to Russia.
Affairs in Mexico gave rise to an exchange of notes between that country and the United States, during the latter part of 1919. During the same period there were serious labor troubles. A general coal strike in bituminous fields was prevented only by the prompt action of the Government by declaring the strike illegal, and issued an injunction preventing the leaders from ordering a strike. A commission was appointed by the President in December to reconcile the differences between the employees and the employers. The railroads also assumed a threatening attitude, but these difficulties were temporarily reconciled pending the passage of railroad legislation in Congress. Several radical measures, the most important of which was the so-called Plumb Bill, were advanced by railroad employees and their representatives. This measure practically gave the railroads of the country into the hands of the employees.
On Feb. 13, 1920, Robert L. Lansing resigned as Secretary of State, as a result of severe criticism on the part of President Wilson of his conduct in summoning the cabinet during the President's illness. He was succeeded by Bainbridge Colby of New Jersey.
The presidential campaign of 1920 had for its chief issue the League of Nations. President Wilson, during the consideration of the measure in the Senate, had made an extensive tour of the country, which was ended only by a physical breakdown that for many months prevented his active participation in the affairs of the Government, and left him practically an invalid. The leading Republican candidates, prior to the convention, were General Leonard Wood; Governor Lowden, of Illinois; Senator Hiram Johnson, of California; and Herbert Hoover. The most conspicuous Democratic candidates were William G. McAdoo and Governor James M. Cox of Ohio. Preferential primary elections were held in the various States during April. The Republican national campaign opened at Chicago, on June 8.