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and was at length in 1552 deprived, through the influence of Northumberland, who coveted the wealth of the see. The accession of Mary restored the bishop, but under his mild rule not a single victim died for heresy throughout the diocese. On Elizabeth's accession he refused to take the oath of supremacy and was deprived of his charge, Sept. 29, 1559. He died in Lambeth Palace, Nov. 18, 1559.

TUPELO, a genus of Cormaceæ consisting of trees inhabiting the swamps and river banks of North America. The common tupelo (Nyssa aquatica) attains 30-50 feet, and its wood is much used for naves of wheels, etc. N. multiflora, the forest tupelo or black gum tree, has a growth like the beech. Its wood serves for wheels, pumps, bowls, mortars, wooden shoes, and various turners' work. The acidulous fruits are made into a pleasant preserve. N. uniflora, the swamp tupelo, grows to 80 feet, and the wood is used for corks and floats.

TUPPER, SIR CHARLES, a Canadian statesman; born in Amherst, Nova Scotia, July 2, 1821; studied medicine in Edinburgh University and practiced his profession in his native town. He was president of the Canadian Medical Association, 1867-1870. In 1855 he was made a member of the provincial legislature and was prime minister of Nova Scotia in 1864-1867. He warmly advocated the formation of the Dominion of Canada, which took place in 1867, and became a member of Sir John A. Macdonald's cabinet in 1870; became minister of public works in 1878; and in 1879-1884 was minister of railways and canals. While filling the latter office he promoted the construction of the great Canadian Pacific railway. In 1884 he was appointed High Commissioner for Canada in London. He was one of the negotiators of the fisheries treaty with the United States in 1887-1888, and was created a baronet in the latter year for his services in that matter. In 1895 he represented Canada at the International Railway Conference in London. He died in 1915.

TUPPER, MARTIN FARQUHAR, an English poet; born in London, England, July 17, 1810; was educated at the Charterhouse and under private tutors, and at 19 went to Christ Church, Oxford. A stammer hindered him from taking orders, so, after graduating in 1831, he entered Lincoln's Inn,, and in 1835 was called to the bar. But a single will and marriage settlement was his first and last exploit in the way of law. Of his various works, 40 in number, one “Proverbial Philosophy” (1838-1867), brought him and his publisher, Hatchards, a profit of “something like $50,000 apiece.” A friend “whose ambition it was to be Tupper's Boswell” predeceased him; but from his own huge “archives” he compiled “My Life as an Author” (1886)—a curious self-study of a poet. He died in Albury, his Surrey home, Nov. 29, 1889.

TURA, or TOORA, a river of west Siberia which joins the Tobol, 78 miles W. of Tobolsk. It is about 300 miles long.

TURANIAN, the title formerly conferred on a vast family of combinatory or agglutinative languages, which is made to comprise every tongue of Asia and Europe that is not either Aryan or Semitic, with the exception of Chinese and its cognate dialects. This family falls, according to Max Müller, into two great divisions, the northern and the southern; the northern being subdivided into five classes, Tungusic, Mongolic, Turkic, Finnic, and Samoyedic; the southern into four, Tamulic or the Dravidian languages of the Dekkan, Bhotiya or the dialects of Bhotan and Tibet, Taïc of Siam, and Malaic of the Malay and Polynesian islands. Under these nine classes he groups 116 dialects, and even then he does not stretch the term Turanian to its widest limits, which with many philologists include Accadian, the language of the Chaldaean inventors of cuneiform, and Basque, and by some are extended to North America. Naturally there is a dispute as to the correctness of the term at all; and while Max Müller asserts that the Turanian languages “share elements in common which they must have borrowed from the same source, and after formal elements are such that it would be impossible to ascribe them to mere accident,” Peile in “Philology” (1877) maintains that the title Turanian “had better be avoided, as the agglutinative languages are much too different to give any ground at all for believing that they all belong to the same family. They agree only in the general principle of forming their speech; but no common bond has yet been found to bring together the main groups of the so-called Turanian peoples; and it is not likely there is any.” This principle, the combinatory, might certainly have been independently arrived at by different nations, and it is equally rash to regard Japanese as necessarily cognate to Finnish because both are agglutinative languages, as it would be to connect the Semitic and Aryan tongues on the score of their common possession of inflection.