136 THE CONDOR VOL. XII species undetermined, Mockingbird (Mimus polyglotlos), Red-breasted Nuthatch (Xilta canadensis), and Varied Thrush (.fa:oreus naevius), and for Juniperus virginiana, Fish Crow (Corvus ossifragus), Grackle (Quiscalus quiscula), Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia) and Redbird (Cardinalis cardinalis). The author's principal conclusions are that: "Birds are reponsibie for most of the dissemi- nation of the junipers," and "General observa- tions seem to point to the dense southern stands as a center for the dissemination along the lines of bird migration."--W. L. M. MCGREGOR'S "MANUAL OF PHILIPPINE BIRDS."I--This work admirably meets the heretofore keenly felt need for a single volume of convenient size, containing descriptions of Philippine birds. In fact the-only previous reference work covering the region is the bulky Catalogue of Birds in the British Museum, not only the size of which but its rarity precluding general use. McGregor's Manual strikes us as having been planned with great care to secure essen- rials and leave out non-essentials; and the plan is followed consistently thruout. The scien- tific name, an English name, and such native namts as seem to be commonly used with some degree of accuracy are given for each species. A well selected synonymy provides references to the important literature pertaining to each species. Detailed distribution, by islands, is given in each case. Concise descriptions, in- cluding metric measurements are given for each and where there are plumage variations, these are separately described in detail. Brief characterizations of the genera and larger groups, together with simple but direct keys, render identification a less formidable task to the reader unfamiliar with oriental birds than would otherwise be the case. The system of classification followed by Mc- Gregor is that set. forth in. Sharpe's Hand-List The reason advanced for adopting the system is the adequate one, that it is "both convenient and well known." It is a pity that American or- nithologists cannot allow themselves to fall into line with the rest of the world, to the end that uniformity of arrangement may be at- tained. There will always be differences of opinion over the relative positions of certain groups; but such minor points might well be conceded in the faunistic treatment of birds, "for the sake of convenience and uniformity." We are interested to observe that McGregor, an independent, systematic student of the bird-life of a large archipelago where there are I A Manual [ of i Philippine Birds I by I Richard C. McGregor ] Part I [ Galliformes to Eurylaemiformes [ [Seal] I Manila [ Bureau of Printing [ 1909 8 vo., pp. x-x, 1- 412. Part II [ Passeriformes (otherwise same title page), pp. ?-xw, 413-769. Part I was issued Al?ril 15, 1909, and Part II, January 31, 1910. many closely allied forms in a group and where the problems of speciation are manifold, thruout his book wholly ignores the frinomial designation. And this too in view of the his- torical fact that McGregor used to be an ardent trinomialist, describing "subspecies" galore! Everything nameable at all is treated in his new book as a binomial. just as does Sharpe and many other English authorities always referred to by Americans in this connection as "conservatives." Do we not see the pendu- lum beginning to swing back again from trino- mialism towards the consistent and non-ambig- uous binomial ? Perhaps the dogged adherent to the frinomial will before long be referred to as the "ohl- fashioned conservative!" The present reviewer is unable in the rather bmef time allotted to the perusal of McGregor's Manual, to find anything in it not worthy o commemlation in a work of this sort. Of course, if the reviewer were familiar with the Philippine oruis, it is quite probable lhat he might differ with the author in minor details of characterization, or range. But he is not; and in common with a host of other students will always turn to the Manual when information within its scope is desired, with confidence tbat it is in its entirety unimpeachahle as an authority in its field.--J. G. THE VERTEBRATE FAUNA OF CHESHIRE AND LIVERPOOL BAY. F?dited by T. A. COWARD, F. Z. S Volume I. The Mammals and Birds of Cheshire. By T. A. Coward and C. Oldham, F. Z.S., M. B. O. U. With i!lustrations from photographs by Thomas Baddeley. Witherby & Co., London, 1910; 8 vo., pp. ?-xxxH+ 1-472. Price 26 shillings net. The two volumes of this work cover the mammals, birds, reptiles, and batrachians of the region, about as much space being devoted to the birds as to all the other groups combined. This is partly due to the fact that there are many more species of birds in the region than of the other classes of animals, and partly be- cause the birds' habits and life histories are so much better known as to warrant treatment in greater detail. In the introduction some space is given to a quotation of the local regulations for the pro- tection of wild birds and a discussion of their effectiveness, the conclusion being that on the whole the laws are futile and inax/equate, tho it is admitted that a few species have noticeably incfeast in nmnbers thru their enforcement A discussion of the migratory movements of the birds follows, in which they are divided into groups--summer residents, winter resi- dents, birds of passage, partial migrants, irreg- ular migrants, and casual wanderers. In the body of the work two hundred and thirty-one species are treated, as having been satisfacto-
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