166 THE CONDOR VOL. XlI she fed to the young. Several times I saw her bring food in this way to the young. In my mind there is no dour that she did not feed by regurgitation. In May of the same year I watcht the nest of a Spurred Towhee (Pipilo m. mcgralonyx). When I found the nest there were three newly-laid eggs. I kept watch of this nest, and in two weeks from my first finding it there were three young in the nest. They were quite naked and were evidently hatcht that morning or the day before. At this time I watcht the birds going to the nest, but because of its location in the grass on the ground, I could not see them put the food into the mouths of the young. Finally, concealed behind an umbrella close to the nest, my companion saw the male come to the nest when the mother was covering the young. As he reacht her she stept aside and the male fed the young fresh food. The next day I was again at the nest. The female was calling piteously and upon looking I found that a snake, coiled in the otherwise empty nest, was the cause of her distress. Presently. the male came to a nearby bush carrying a large moth in his bill. This was, of course, intended for the young and seemed proof sufficient that he was not feeding by regurgitation. Another bird of this same family who feeds fresh insects to young as soon as hatcht, is the southern California Towhee (Pipilo c. senicula). I have wateht many nests of the newly hatcht of these birds and always they were fed fresh food as soon as they were fed anything. The food they seem fondest of feeding is a soft light green'worm found on weeds or grass. As in the case of the Spurred'Towhee I have seen a moth fed when young were two days old. In April I watcht the nesting habits of the Rufous-crowned Sparrow (Aimophila . m(#ceps). On the 15th the eggs were not hatcht; but the next day at six p.m., I found young in the nest. I watcht the birds for half an hour and saw both of them come to the nest and feed the young with small worms ?tnd other insect life. I have often watcht at the nests of Phainopepla nilens, a bird belonging to the same family as the Cedar Waxwing, and who is a summer visitant only, in southern California. At the nest of one of these birds which contained newly hatcht young, I saw the male go ?vith a blue nightshade berry in his bill. As he rested on the side of the nest he threw ba?k his head and let this berry slip into his throat, then back into his mouth, three times before feeding it to the young. I also saw the female fly thru the air in pursuit of tiny insects then go to the nest and feed. For some time I watcht the pair feed, and it was never by regurgitation, unless soften- ing the food by passing it up and do?'n in the throat could be so designated. I believe many birds fill the throat with food before coming to the nest. It is their only means of carrying a quantity and, as I understand it, is not reguritation. In the case of a pair of Arkansas Kingbirds (Tyrannus verticalis) which I watcht, I believe the birds both fed fresh food directly to young and used regurgi- tative methods. Tho this pair of birds nested so high that I could not look into the nest, I watcht them daily and know the young were not more than a ?lay old when I saw both adults fly thru the air, then to. the nest where, side by side, they fed the young. Several times I saw them do this. I also saw the female take the nest without feeding and after a few minutes rise slightly and feed the young beneath her. This latter feeding I should call regurgitation, while the former was not. At a nest of the Arizona Hooded Oriole (]clerus c. nelsoni) I saw both birds go directly to the nest.with fresh food in their bills when the young were only one day old. After feeding they left the nest. From these few observations of birds which are supposed to regurgitate and do
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