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62 THE CONDOR Vol. XIX lationsh?ps with man aftJr the manner of the Eastern t?obin to which it is so closely related. The English Sparrow was introduced some forty years ago a?d has in- creased enormously. The Brewer Blackbird is probably another late addition to the breeding birds of the county, as it was listed as rare some years ago and is now abundant. The nesting of the Barn Swallow does not seem to have been noted before and it is likely that it is increasing in numbers as is also the Cliff Swallow. The nesting of the Pigeon Guillemot is of especial interest. This seems to be a case of a species returning to the nesting place of its ancestors after years of absence from the ancestral homesite. It is our opinion that many of the species of birds mentioned in this list are increasing in the county. This is largely due to the protection given them in Golden Gate Park. The custom of the park management, however, of shoot- ing the male mallards during the winter is to be deplored. Such shooting drives away the more timid waterfowl and thus keeps many of the rare species out of the park. There are already three times as many female mallards as male mallards in the park, as any one can see for himself by counting them. Given adequate protection, the number of birds in the park ought to go on increasing ?or years. The Lake Merced region is a natural bird refuge; and it would be the part of wisdom to make it such in fact. If the waterfowl and other species of birds found there wer. e given adequate protection the bird life of the region would in a few years be such as to surpass the expectations of the most sanguine--an unending source of pride, pleasure, and profit to all right thinking people of this generation and to all the generations that are to come. San Francisco, California, December 20, 1916. GEOGi?APHICAL VAi?IATION IN SPHYRAPICUS THYROIDEUS By H. S. SWARTH (Contribution from the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology of the University of California) HE acquisition during recent years by the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology of fairly representative series of Williamson Sapsuckers from various parts of California led to the careful examination of these birds to detmq?ine wheth- er more than one recognizable race might be included among them. A prelim- inary survey of the Museum series disclosed the need of additional material from certain points, and the necessary specimens were borrowed from the collection of John E. Thayer, from the Museum of Comparative Zoology, through Mr. Outram Bangs, and from the collection of the Geological Survey of Canada, through Mr. P. A. Taverner. There are in the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, including the Grinnell, Morcom and Swarth collections, ninety-nine specimens of this species. Altogether 123 skins were examined. Critical study of specimens from various parts of the Pacific Coast, from British Columbia to southern California, always with due regard to seasonal and other variations, shows no tangible differences in either sex, existing between birds from different latitudes, contrary to a first impression that the northern individuals were of appreciably larger size.