26 THE CONDOR ] voL. VIII species leave lono? be/ore the reo?ular fall rnio?ralion. I believe this holds for the whole Columbian Plateau. The robin is especially affected, and the Cassin finch not at all. I have distinguished a difference between the "phoebe" calls of the chickadee and mountain chickadee. Here the chickadee gives but one "phoe" note, altho there may be one or two of the "be" notes. The mountain chickadee, however, gives two "phoe" notes, which may be followed by one or two of the "be" notes. Doubtless exceptions occur, but I have not heard them. I have noticed six cripples among birds during the twenty-two months. A mallard duck was brought to me with a bill once injnred probably by a gunshot or barb wire, which had entirely healed; but the tongue was torn so that it hung down at the base (if the bill. The bird was extremely emaciated and was doubt- less starving. A lazuli bunting had an injured wing, which, tho there was no fresh wound, prevented the bird from flying more than short distances. A one- legged killdeer hopped successfully on one foot. Three crippled Brewer black- birds were seen in the flock which frequents the town feed lot in the fall after most of the others had gone south. This rather large nnmber is to be explained, I think, by segregation, since they found picking up the scattered seed better suited to their capacities than the varied actimps of the large flocks assembling for the migration. One of these had a croo?:ed leg, another had no foot and only a part of the shank, and the third evidently had a compound fracture of the "thigh." The first two were seen for some time, but as the last was observed only once, it probably soon died. I am convinced from these observations and others that there is little competition for food among birds of the same species here, but that the principal cause of death among them are enemies and the physical environment. In this list or' birds, the dates, when given, are the mean dates of arrival for the years 'o4 and 'o 5. They are not given when observations were too few to make the date significant. PERMANENT RESIDENTS Colinus virginianus. Bob-white. Introdnced. Bonasa umbellus togata. Canadian Ruffed Grouse. Pedicecetesphasianellus columbianus. Columbian Sharp-tailed Grouse. Buteo borealis calurus. Western Red-tailed Haxxk. Megascops asio subsp? Screech Owl. Bubo virginianus saturatus. Dnsky Horned Owl. Surnia ulula'caparoch. American Hawk Owl. Colaptes caret collaris. Red shafted Flicker. Pica pica hudsonica. Black-billed Magpie. Cyanocitta stelleri annectens. Black-headed Jay. Irregular. Agelaius phceniceus neutralis. San Diego Red-wing. Astragalinus tristis pallidus. Pale Goldfinch. Melospiza cinerea merrilli. Merrill Song Sparrow. Olbiorchilus hiemalis pacificus. Western Winter Wren. Rare. Parus atricapillus. Chickadee. Sitta pygm?ea. Pygmy Nuthatch. WINTER VISITANTS Dryobates villosus monticola. Rocky Mountain Hairy Woodpecker. Rare. Xenopicus alholarvatus. White-headed Woodpecker. Rare. 0tocoris alpestris arctiola. Pallid Horned Lark. Rare.
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