Page:Descent of Man 1875.djvu/342

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Part II.
The Descent of Man.

Mr. Wallace remarks, "distastefulness alone would be insufficient to protect a caterpillar unless some outward sign indicated to its would-be destroyer that its prey was a disgusting morsel." Under these circumstances it would be highly advantageous to a caterpillar to be instantaneously and certainly recognised as unpalatable by all birds and other animals. Thus the most gaudy colours would be serviceable, and might have been gained by variation and the survival of the most easily-recognised individuals.

This hypothesis appears at first sight very bold, but when it was brought before the Entomological Society[1] it was supported by various statements; and Mr. J. Jenner Weir, who keeps a large number of birds in an aviary, informs me that he has made many trials, and finds no exception to the rule, that all caterpillars of nocturnal and retiring habits with smooth skins, all of a green colour, and all which imitate twigs, are greedily devoured by his birds. The hairy and spinose kinds are invariably rejected, as were four conspicuously-coloured species. When the birds rejected a caterpillar, they plainly shewed, by shaking their heads, and cleansing their beaks, that they were disgusted by the taste.[2] Three conspicuous kinds of caterpillars and moths were also given to some lizards and frogs, by Mr. A. Butler, and were rejected, though other kinds were eagerly eaten. Thus the probability of Mr. Wallace's view is confirmed, namely, that certain caterpillars have been made conspicuous for their own good, so as to be easily recognised by their enemies, on nearly the same principle that poisons are sold in coloured bottles by druggists for the good of man. We cannot, however, at present thus explain the elegant diversity in the colours of many caterpillars; but any species which had at some former period acquired a dull, mottled, or striped appearance, either in imitation of surrounding objects, or from the direct action of climate, &c., almost certainly would not become uniform in colour, when its tints were rendered intense and bright; for in order to make a caterpillar merely conspicuous, there would be no selection in any definite direction.

Summary and Concluding Remarks on Insects.—Looking back

  1. Proc. 'Entomolog. Soc.' Dec. 3rd, 1866, p. xlv., and March 4th, 1867 p. lxxx.
  2. See Mr. J. Jenner Weir's paper on Insects and Insectivorous Birds, in 'Transact. Ent. Soc.' 1869, p. 21; also Mr. Butler's paper, ibid. p. 27. Mr. Riley has given analogous facts in the 'Third Annual Report on the Noxious Insects of Missouri,' 1871, p. 148. Some opposed cases are, however, given by Dr. Wallace and M. H. d'Orville; see 'Zoological Record,' 1869, p. 349.