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unionism and identified himself with labour agitation, selling his books to give 100l. to the woodcutters who engaged in a strike in 1851. Meanwhile he wrote for the 'Christian Socialist,' and published in 1850 his first literary work, a pamphlet entitled 'Association a Necessary Part of Christianity.'

Philological study and music also engaged Furnivall's youthful attention. He joined the Philological Society in 1847, and heard Chopin play (26 July 1848) and Jenny Lind sing. The current literature which he chiefly admired was the early work of Ruskin, with whose outlook on life he avowed an eager sympathy. In 1849 a chance meeting with Mrs. Ruskin at a friend's house led to an invitation to Ruskin's London home. 'Thus began,' Furnivall wrote, 'a friendship (with Ruskin) which was for many years the chief joy of my life.' Of Ruskin, Furnivall was through life a wholehearted worshipper, and the habit of egotistic reflection which characterised his own writing is often a halting echo of Ruskin's style and temperament.

At the beginning of the intercourse Furnivall sought with youthful ardour to bring Ruskin into relation with Maurice. In 1851 he invited Maurice's opinion of Ruskin's theological argument in his 'Notes on the Construction of Sheepfolds.' Furnivall forwarded Maurice's criticisms to Ruskin, and an interesting correspondence passed through Furnivall between the two; but they had little in common. Furnivall, who inclined to Ruskin's rather than to Maurice's views, printed this correspondence for private circulation in 1890 (Nicoll and Wise, Anecdotes of the Nineteenth Century, ii. 1-46).

In the spirit of Christian Socialism Furnivall at the same time devoted his best energies to endeavours to improve the social and educational opportunities of the working classes. With Ludlow and others he opened as early as 1849 a school for poor men and boys at Little Ormond Yard, Bioomsbury. In 1852 he joined the same friends in forming a working men's association for the purpose of giving lectures and holding classes at a house in Castle Street East, off Oxford Street. These efforts developed into the foundation on 26 Oct. 1854 of the Working Men's College in Red Lion Square, with Maurice as principal. Furnivall vigorously helped in the organisation of the new college. He spent there five nights a week, and actively identified himself with its social, athletic, and educational life, Furnivall taught English grammar and lectured on English poetry from Chaucer to Tennyson. He induced Ruskin to teach drawing to the students with profitable results. But it was in the development of the social side that he worked hardest. He accompanied the students in botanical walks and on rowing excursions. He arranged Sunday rambles, and organised concerts and dances. In 1858, on the advice of Ruskin, he took a party of working men on a tour abroad. It was Fumivall's only experience of foreign travel. He left London with his companions for Havre on 6 Sept., and spent three weeks walking in Normandy and visiting Paris. In 1859 he eagerly helped to organise a volunteer corps of college students, and became company commander, retaining the post for twelve years. Subsequently he inaugurated a college rowing club, which was named after Maurice. He induced the members to engage, under his leadership, in sculling four and eight races, which he introduced to the Thames in 1866; he was long the rowing club's guiding spirit.

Furnivall's devotion to the recreative aims of the college, and his emphatic advocacy of Sunday as a day of solely secular amusement, caused difficulties between him and Maurice and other members of the college council. His religious views had undergone a change. He had been brought up in conventional orthodoxy. This he abandoned in early manhood for an outspoken agnosticism and uncompromising hostility to the received faiths. Joining the Sunday League which combated Sabbatarianism, he described, during 1858, the Sunday amusements of the college in the League's organ, 'The People's Friend.' His somewhat insolent references to Maurice led the latter to tender his resignation of the principalship, and he was with difficulty persuaded to remain in office. Although a reconciliation was patched up, Maurice's relations with Furnivall lost all show of cordiality. Furnivall deemed Maurice and the college council to be not only unduly conservative in their religious views but imdemocratic in refusing working men admission to the council. Fumivall's activity in the affairs of the college ceased only with his life. He never lost his early tone of impatience with those colleagues whose religious or political views differed from his own. But he retained to the last the ardent devotion of the students, and the social development of the institution stood deeply indebted to him. Furnivall's zeal for literary study rapidly developed, and he tried to adapt to its