committee for Great Britain and Ireland of the International Congress of Medicine. The permanent committee of this congress, meeting at the Hague in 1909, appointed him the first chairman.
Pavy was elected F.R.S. in 1863; the University of Glasgow conferred upon him the hon. degree of LL.D. in 1888, and in 1909 he was crowned Lauréat de l'Académie de Médecine de Paris and received the Prix Grodard for his physiological researches. On 26 June 1909, at a meeting of the Physiological Society of Great Britain and Ireland held at Oxford, he was presented with a silver bowl bearing an expression 'of affection and admiration.'
Pavy died at his house, 35 Grosvenor Street, London, W., on 19 Sept. 1911, and was buried at Highgate cemetery.
He married in 1854 Julia, daughter of W. Oliver, by whom he had two daughters who predeceased him. The elder, Florence Julia (d. 1902), was married in 1881 to the Rev. Sir Borradaile Savory, second baronet, son of Sir William Scovell Savory, first baronet, F.R.S. [q. v.].
A sketch — a good likeness — made by W. Strang, A.R.A., hangs in the rooms of the Royal Society of Medicine.
Pavy was the last survivor of a line of distinguished physician-chemists who did much to lay the foundations and advance the study of metabolic disorders; at the same time he ranks as a pioneer amongst the chemical pathologists of the modern school. As a pupil of Claude Bernard he recognised that all advances in the study of disease must rest upon investigations into the normal processes of the body; but as his investigations proceeded, he found himself obliged to dissent from the views of his master and to adopt new working hypotheses which he put to the test of experiment and frequently varied. Some of his theories did not meet with the approval of those who were working along similar lines, and others never obtained general acceptance. He made the study of carbohydrate metabolism the work of his life, and he was the founder of the modern theory of diabetes. In this connection his name was associated with many practical improvements in clinical and practical medicine, and 'Pavy's Test' for sugar and his use of sugar tests and albumen tests in the solid form have made his name familiar to physicians and medical students throughout the world. As a practical physician, too, he was greatly interested in dietetics, and he wrote a well-known book upon the subject, 'A Treatise on Food and Dietetics physiologically and therapeutically considered' (1873; 2nd edit. 1875; Philadelphia, 1874; New York, 1881). Throughout life he remained a student, and even to the last week he was at work in the laboratory which he had built at the back of his consulting room in Grosvenor Street. Quiet in bearing, gentle and courteous in speech, and with a somewhat old-fashioned formality of manner, he was generous in his benefactions. At Guy's medical school he built a well-equipped gymnasium and presented it to the students' union in 1890.
Besides the works cited Pavy published: 1. 'Researches on the Nature and Treatment of Diabetes,' 1862; 2nd edit. 1869; translated into German by Dr. W. Langenbeck, Gottingen, 1864. 2. 'A Treatise on the Functions of Digestion, its Disorders and their Treatment,' 1867; 2nd edit. 1869. 3. 'The Croonian Lectures on Certain Points connected with Diabetes, delivered at the Royal College of Physicians,' 1878. 4. 'The Harveian Oration, delivered at the Royal College of Physicians,' 1886. 5. 'The Physiology of the Carbohydrates, their Application as Food and Relation to Diabetes,' 1894; translated into German by Karl Grube, Leipzig and Vienna, 1895. 6. 'On Carbohydrate Metabolism (a course of advanced lectures on Physiology delivered at the University of London, May 1905), with an appendix on the assimilation of carbohydrate into proteid and fat, followed by the fundamental principles and the treatment of Diabetes dialectically discussed,' 1906.
[The Lancet, 1911, ii. 976 (with portrait and bibliography of chief papers contributed to periodicals and societies); Brit. Med. Journal, 1911, ii. 777 (with portrait); The Guy's Hosp. Gaz. 1911, xxv. 393 (with bibliography); additional information kindly given by Sir William Borradaile Savory, Bart., his grandson, by H. L. Eason, Esq., M.S., dean of the medical school at Guy's Hospital, and by Dr. J. S. Edkins; personal knowledge.]
PAYNE, EDWARD JOHN (1844–1904), historian, born at High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire, on 22 July 1844, was the son of Edward William Payne, who was in humble circumstances, by his wife Mary Welch. Payne owed his education largely to his own exertions. After receiving early training at the grammar school of High Wycombe, he was employed by a local architect and surveyor named Pontifex, and he studied architecture under William Burges [q. v.]. Interested in music from youth, he also acted as organist of