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partly a question of classification (Mind, xxx. 274). The later book was unfortunately left in a very imperfect state. It starts from the principle that every physical state is the symbol of a state of consciousness, and argues that feeling is not the effect but the efficient cause of motion. It leads to a system of monadism which would have been compared with Leibnitz's doctrine and with modern theories such as Clifford's ‘mindstuff.’ Though fragmentary, it is full of interesting suggestions.

[Preface to Physical Metempiric; Mind, Nos. xxiii. and xxx.]

L. S.

BARRAUD, HENRY (1811–1874), portrait and subject painter, was born in 1811. Like his elder brother, William Barraud, he excelled in painting animals, but his works were chiefly portraits, with horses and dogs, and subject pictures, such as ‘The Pope blessing the Animals’ (painted in 1842), many of which were executed in conjunction with his brother. He exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1833 to 1859, and at the British Institution and Society of British Artists between the years 1831 and 1868. His most popular works were: ‘We praise Thee, O God;’ ‘The London Season,’ a scene in Hyde Park; ‘Lord's Cricket Ground;’ and ‘The Lobby of the House of Commons,’ painted in 1872, all of which have been engraved or autotyped. He died in London on 17 June 1874, in his sixty-fourth year.

[Redgrave's Dictionary of Artists, 1878.]

R. E. G.

BARRAUD, WILLIAM (1810–1850), animal painter, born in 1810, was a grandson of the eminent chronometer maker in Cornhill, who was of an old French family that came over to England at the time of the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. His taste for art was probably inherited from his maternal grandfather, an excellent miniature painter, but it was not fostered early in life, for on leaving school he was placed in the Custom House, where his father held an appointment. Before long, however, he resigned, in order to follow the profession most in accord with his disposition, and, in pursuance of his purpose, became for some time a pupil of Abraham Cooper. He confined his practice chiefly to horses and dogs, his pictures of which are well drawn, though not marked by any of the higher qualities of art. These he exhibited at the Royal Academy, and occasionally at the British Institution and Society of British Artists, from 1828 until the year of his death. He likewise painted some subject pictures in conjunction with his brother Henry, which are above mediocrity both in conception and treatment. He died in October 1850, in his fortieth year. There is in the South Kensington Museum a water-colour drawing by him of ‘Mares and Foals.’

[Art Journal, 1850, p. 339; Redgrave's Dictionary of Artists, 1878; Bryan's Dictionary of Painters and Engravers (ed. Graves), 1885.]

R. E. G.

BARRÉ, ISAAC (1726–1802), colonel and politician, the son of Peter Barré, a French refugee from Rochelle, who rose by slow degrees to a position of eminence in Dublin commerce, was born at Dublin in 1726. He was entered at Trinity College, Dublin, as a pensioner 19 Nov. 1740, became a scholar in 1744, and took his degree in the following year. His parents intended him to have become an attorney, but his instincts were for fighting, and he was gazetted as an ensign in 1746. Not until he applied for a place in Wolfe's regiment, in the ill-fated expedition against Rochefort in 1757, did he attract the attention of his superior officers; but his services on that occasion introduced him both to the commander of his regiment and to his future patron, Lord Shelburne. He was by Wolfe's side when his brave leader fell at Quebec, and was permanently disfigured by a wound in the cheek. He is among the officers represented in West's picture. After fourteen years of service Barré thought himself justified in applying to Pitt for advancement (28 April 1760); but his request was refused, on the ground that ‘senior officers would be injured by his promotion.’ He was lieutenant-colonel commandant of 106th foot from 1761 until he was deprived in 1763. Through Lord Shelburne's influence he sat in parliament for Chipping Wycombe from 5 Dec. 1761 to 1774, and for Calne from that year to 1790, when, in consequence of a disagreement with his patron, he no longer sought re-election. Five days after his first election he attacked Pitt with great fierceness of language; and the effect of his speech was heightened by his massive and swarthy figure, as well as by the bullet which had lodged loosely in his cheek, and given ‘a savage glare’ to his eye. Early in 1763 Barré was created, under Lord Bute's ministry, adjutant-general and governor of Stirling, a post worth 4,000l. a year, but in the following September was dismissed by the Grenville ministry from his place and from the army. A reconciliation was effected between him and Pitt in February 1764, and their political attachment only ceased with Pitt's death. Barré strenuously opposed the taxa-