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treated with Frederick Spinola about the Spanish invasion. In 1610 Baldwin had to make a journey on business to Rome, during which, when passing the confines of Alsace and the Palatinate, he was apprehended by the soldiers of the Elector Palatine, Frederick VI, not far from the city of Spires. As the elector knew that he would be conferring a great favour upon King James, he kept him in close custody in various public prisons, and then sent him to England escorted by a guard of twelve soldiers, travelling sometimes on horseback and sometimes in a cart, bound with a heavy chain from the neck to the breast, where it was turned and wound round his entire body, 'being twice as long as would have been required to secure an African lion.' As if that did not suffice, they hung another chain behind him, eighteen feet long, to carry which it was necessary to have an assistant, whom in jest they called his train-bearer. To loosen or tighten these chains, four men, with as many keys, preceded him. They allowed him to have only one hand at liberty for the purpose of conducting food to his mouth, never both hands at once, nor was he permitted the use of a knife and fork, lest he might be driven by the infamy of the plot and the anticipation of the gallows to commit suicide. On his arrival in this country he was at once committed a close prisoner to the Tower of London. Although nothing was proved against him, his captivity lasted for eight years, till 15 June 1618, when, at the intercession of the Count de Gondomar, the Spanish ambassador, he was released and sent into banishment. In 1621 Baldwin was rector of Louvain, and then (1622) the fifth rector of St. Omer's College, which, under his government, prospered to such a degree as to number nearly 200 scholars. He died at St. Omer on 28 Sept. 1632.

Baldwin left in manuscript several voluminous treatises on pious subjects. A list of them is given in Southwell's 'Bibliotheca Scriptorum Soc. Jesu.'

[Oliver's Collectanea S.J. 49; More's Hist. Prov. Angl. S.J. 374; Tanner's Societas Jesu usque ad sanguinis et vitæ profusionem militans, 629; Foley's Records, iii. 501-520, vii. 42; Dodd's Church Hist. ii. 393; Oliver's Collections concerning the Catholic Religion in Cornwall, &c. 236; Boase and Courtney's Bibl. Cornubiensis, iii. 1045; Boase's Register of Exeter College, Oxford, 186; Cal. of State Papers (1603-10); Morris's Condition of Catholics under James I (1871), p. cclviii, 165; Coxe's Cat. Codd. MSS. in Collegiis Aulisq. Oxon. ii. 53; Diaries of the English College, Douay, 192, 197, 331.]

T. C.

BALDWULF, BEADWULF, or BADULF (d. 803?), bishop of Whithern or Candida Casa, in Galloway, was consecrated to that see 17 July 791 by Archbishop Eanbald of York and Bishop Æthelberht of Hexham (Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, s. a. 791; Sim. Dur. 790; Hen. Hunt. Hist. Angl. lib. iv.) His assisting at the coronation of a Northumbrian king (Eardwulf, Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, s. a. 795), and shortly afterwards at the consecration of a Northumbrian archbishop (Eanbald II of York, Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, s.a. 796), shows that, in his hands, the bishopric established as an outpost of Anglian influence among the Celts of Galloway lost none of its original character. But Northumbria had by this time become so disorganised that it was found impossible to maintain any hold over this distant dependency. Baldwulf seems to have been the last Anglian bishop of Whithern (Will. Malm. Gesta Pontificum, lib. iii. f. 118). On his death about 803 (Skene's Celtic Scotland, ii. 225–the date seems conjectural), either no bishop was appointed, or the bishop of Lindisfarne, Heathored (Flor. Wig. M. H. B. p. 626 d), added the nominal charge of Galloway to his own diocese. The Gallwegians had regained their ecclesiastical independence.

[Authorities cited above.]

T. F. T.

BALDWYN, EDWARD (1746–1817), pamphleteer, was educated at St. John's College, Oxford (B.A., 1767; M.A., 1784). For some years he was resident in Yorkshire, where, under the pseudonym of 'Trim,' he was engaged in a literary squabble with the Rev. William Atkinson and other clergymen of the 'evangelical' school. Subsequently he removed to Ludlow in Shropshire, and eventually became rector of Abdon in that county. He died in Kentish Town, London, 11 Feb. 1817, and was buried in Old St. Pancras churchyard.

He wrote: 1. 'A Critique on the Poetical Essays of the Rev. William Atkinson', 1787. 2. 'Further Remarks on two of the most Singular Characters of the Age,' 1789. 3. 'A Letter to the Author of Remarks on two of the most Singular Characters of the Age. By the Rev. John Crosse, vicar of Bradford; with a reply by the former,' 1790, with which is printed 'The Olla Podrida; or Trim's Entertainment for his Creditors.' 4. 'Remarks on the Oaths, Declarations, and Conduct of Johnson Atkinson Busfield, Esq.,' 1791. 5. 'A Congratulatory Address to the Rev. John Crosse, on the Prospect of his Recovery from a Dangerous Disease,' 1791.

[Herald and Genealogist, ii. 219; Roffe's British Monumental Inscriptions, i. No. 25;