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and was succeeded by Robert the Steward. David was only in his forty-seventh year, but he had reigned forty-one years, reckoning from his accession.

Fordun and Wyntoun, the writers nearest the time of David, who did not know the extent of his treason to Scotland, treat his character more favourably than modern historians. They commend his administration of justice, his bravery, even his resolute assertion of the royal authority. Wyntoun, in a curious passage which evidently relates an authentic anecdote, tells how on his return to Scotland, when he was going to his privy council,

The folk, as they were wont to do,
Pressyt rycht rudly in thare to,
Bot he rycht suddenly gan arrace
Out of a macer's hand a mace,
And said rudly how do we now?
Stand still, or the proudest of you
Sall on his hevyd have smyte this mace.

This apparently trivial incident gives occasion to a general reflection by the historian,expressing his view of David:

Radure in prynee is a gud thyng,
For but radure all governyng
Sall all tyme bot despiysed be.

In the same passage he mentions that David only brought with him from England a single page, not what we should expect if he then had the idea of bringing Scotland under English influence. Both Wyntoun and Fordun, who, it must be remembered, were Scottish churchmen (the English 'Chronicles of Lanercost,' whose monastery he plundered, take a very different view of David), incline to the side of the king as against the nobles, whose oppression he is represented as putting down. Later writers, on the other hand, note his undoubted weakness, his love of pleasure, his passion for an English mistress—Katherine Mortimer, who died during the life of Joanna, and was buried with pomp at Newbattle—his impolitic marriage with Margaret Logie, his extravagance, his jealousy, and ill-treatment of Robert the Steward, above all his sacrifice of the independence his father had established. These inconsistent views, both of which have some foundation in fact, point to a character itself inconsistent, passionate, and headstrong, capable at times of showing strength, at bottom weak, liable to be led by various influences, in the end yielding to the persistent policy and will of the English king.

[Wyntoun, Fordun, and the Liber Plyscardensis are the Scotch original authorities, but Knighton and Froissart supply several details. The Exchequer Rolls of Scotland, vols. i. and ii., and W. Burnett's learned prefaces are specially valuable for the life of David.]

Æ. M.

BRUCE, DAVID (fl. 1660), physician, was the son of Andrew Bruce, D.D., principal (from 1630 to 1647) of St. Leonard's College in St. Andrews University. He was first educated at St. Andrews, and proceeded M.A. there. Later he went to France, and studied physic at Paris and Montpellier. He intended taking a medical degree at Padua; but the plague kept him from Italy, and he finally graduated M.D. at Valence in Dauphiny on 7 May 1657. On 27 March 1660 Bruce was incorporated doctor of physic at Oxford. He was associated with his great-uncle, Sir John Wedderburne, in the office of physician to the Duke and Duchess of York. But after fulfilling, in consequence of Wedderburne's infirmities, all the duties of the post for many years, he resigned the office and travelled abroad. Subsequently he settled at Edinburgh, and was there 'in good repute for his practice.' Wood speaks of him as still living in Edinburgh in 1690. Bruce was admitted candidate of the College of Physicians on 24 Dec. 1660, and was an original member of the Royal Society.

[Wood's Fasti Oxon. ii. 225; Munk's Coll. of Phys. i. 297.]

S. L. L.

BRUCE, EDWARD (d. 1318), king of Ireland, was younger brother of Robert Bruce [q. v.], king of Scotland. In 1308 Edward Bruce took part in the incursion upon the district of Galloway by King Robert, and, during the indisposition of the latter, acted as a commander of his forces in their retreat from those of the Earl of Richmond, governor in Scotland for Edward II. Edward Bruce was subsequently despatched by his brother against Galloway, which resisted his authority. He routed the English commander and his Scottish allies there, and compelled the inhabitants to swear allegiance and to furnish contributions. In this contest he succeeded by a stratagem in putting to flight the English troops. The details of this enterprise were chronicled by the poet Barbour, from the narration of one of Bruce's associates. On the banks of the Dee, Edward Bruce defeated the forces brought against him by the chiefs of Galloway, and made a prisoner of Donall, prince of the Isles. He reduced a large number of castles and strongholds in Galloway, and brought that district under the dominion of King Robert. Edward Bruce's success in Galloway was celebrated in a contemporary poem. While King Robert was engaged on an expedition against the Isle of Man, Edward Bruce gained possession of the town of Dundee. Before the end of