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he was made a K.C.B. in April 1852. Soon after Lord Hardinge had succeeded Wellington as commander-in-chief Brown resigned his post at the Horse Guards in December 1863 His resignation was almost certainly caused by the reforms introduced into the administration of the army by Lord Hardinge, but it has been hinted that it was partly due to the interference of the prince consort with the details of military business.

In 1854 Brown was selected for a command in the army intended for the East and soon showed that his long official life had made him something of a martinet. He was the first of the general officers to reach Turkey and his policy of 'pipe-claying, close-shaving, and tight-stocking' was strongly condemned by the 'Times' correspondent. Though he kept his men under close discipline, he was endeared to them by his kindness when the cholera broke out at Varna. He took command of the light division and on landing in the Crimea in advance of his soldiers was nearly taken prisoner by a Russian outpost. At the battle of the Alma his division was in the heat of the battle and his horse was shot down under him while he was cheering on the 23rd Welsh fusiliers to the attack on the Russian centre. After the allied army took up its position before Sebastopol the light division was posted on the Victoria Ridge and so did not bear the brunt of the Russian attack on 5 Nov. Brown was soon on the field and seems to have led the opportune attack of the French Zouaves who recaptured the three guns of Boothby's demi-battery which the Russians had just taken, and in doing so he was shot through the left arm and wounded in the chest (Kinglake Invasion of the Crimea, v. 325. He refused to go home on account of his wounds and assisted Lord Raglan, to whom he was by seniority second in command, through the winter, and in May 1855 he commanded the English contingent to the Sea of Azoff which took Kertch and Yenikale. On 28 June 1855, however, the day on which Lord Raglan died, he was invalided home by a medical board, and the imputation that he was jealous of Sir James Simpson is therefore unfounded (see Surgeon Watkins's letter to the 'Times' on 6 Sept 1865). He was made a G.C.B. in July 1855 and promoted general in September 1855, and was appointed colonel of the 1st battalion of the rifle brigade. On the conclusion of the war he was also made a knight grand cross of the Legion of Honour and a knight of the Medjidie. In 1860 he was appointed commander-in-chief in Ireland and sworn of the privy council there, and in 1863 he became colonel of the 32nd regiment and colonel-in-chief of the rifle brigade In April 1865 he resigned his command, and on 27 Aug. he died at his brother's house of Linkwood, near Elgin, the house in which he was born.

[Obituary notice in Times 29 Aug. 1865; biography in Nolan's Crimea 1855 and in Our Heroes in the Crimea; but, for the part he played there and a real account of his actions, see Kinglake's Invasion of the Crimea and Dr. Russell's letters to the Times.]

H. M. S.

BROWN, GEORGE HILARY D.D. (1786–1856), catholic prelate, born 13 Jan. 1786, was educated at St. Cuthbert's College, Ushaw, where he became vice-president and professor of theology. Afterwards he was missioner at Lancaster. On the partition of the northern district he was appointed vicar-apostolic of the Lancashire district by Pope Gregory XVI and was consecrated at on 24 Aug. 1840 with the title of bishop of Tloa 'in partibus infidelium,' On the restoration of the hierarchy by Pius IX in 1850 he was translated to the newly erected see of Liverpool, in which town he died on 25 Jan. 1856

[Catholic Directory (1885), 59, 159; Weekly Register 2 Feb. 1856.]

T. C.

BROWN, GILBERT (d. 1612), Scotch catholic divine, was descended from the ancient family of Carsluith in the parish Kirkmabreck. He entered the Cistercian order and was the last abbot of Sweetheart, or New Abbey, in the stewartry of Kirkcudbright, about seven miles from Dumfries. In that capacity he sat in parliament 17 Aug. 1560, whilst the confession of faith was approved. He was, however, an active opponent of the Reformation. In 1578 he complained of as being zealous in the family of Lord Herries; and in the following year he was accused before the general assembly of enticing people within the bounds of 'papistrie.' Brown laboured so zealously for the catholic cause in Glasgow, in Paisley, and in Galloway, that in 1588 the general assembly complained of his 'busyness.' Lord Herries then expelled the presbyterian ministers from Dumfries. As all endeavours to stop the catholic reaction proved unavailing, the general assembly in 1594 petitioned for Brown's apprehension by the guard. At this period he entered into a written controversy with John Welsche, minister of Ayr, and composed 'Ane Answere to ane certaine libell or writing sent by Mr John Welsche, to ane Catholicke, as ane Answer to ane Objection of the Romane Kirk whereby they go about to deface the veritie of that onely true religion whilk we