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Bruce
Bruce
115

ment with Bishop Jocelyn, under which he mortified the churches of Moffat and Kirkpatric, and granted the patronage of Drivesdale, Hoddam, and Castlemilk, in return apparently for a cession by the bishop of his claim to certain lands in Annandale.

[Charter of William the Lion in Ayloffe’s Charters; Madox's History of Exchequer; Resgistrum Glasguense, pp. 64-5; Calendar of Documents relating to Scotland, i. No. 197.]

Æ. M.


BRUCE, ROBERT de IV (d. before 1191), son of Robert III, was married in 1183 to Isabel, daughter of William the Lion, by a daughter of Robert Avenel, when he was given the manor of Haltwhistle in Tyndale as her dowry. He must have survived his father, if at all, only a short time, as his widow married Robert de Ros in 1191, and the date of his father's death being uncertain it may be doubted whether he succeeded to Annandale. He was succeeded by William de Bruce, his brother, in that fief, who was the only exception to the line of Roberts. William held Annandale along with the English manors of Hert and Haltwhistle till his death in 1215.

[Dugdale's Baronage, i. 449; Graham's Lochmaben, pp. 16 and 17.]

Æ. M.


BRUCE, ROBERT de V (d. 1245), son of William de Bruce, married Isabel, second daughter of David, earl of Huntingdon, younger brother of William the Lion, and thus founded the claim of his descendants to the crown. In 1215-16 he obtained from King John a confirmation of a grant of a market and fair at Hartlepool. He was a witness at York in 1221 of Alexander II’s charter of jointure to his wife Joanna, sister of Henry III. During this reign his own great estate and royal connection by marriage made the lord of Annandale one of the chief barons of southern Scotland. Like his ancestors he was liberal to the church, confirming and increasing their grants. He died in 1245, and was buried at the abbey of Saltrey in Huntingdonshire.

[Rymer’s Fœdera, i. 252; Dugdale’s Baronage, i, 449; Monasticon, ii. 151. Several charters by or to him are amongst the Duchy of Lancaster Charters, and notes of them are printed, Calendars of Documents relating to Scotland, i. Nos. 1680-5.]

Æ. M.


BRUCE, ROBERT de VI (1210–1295), sometimes called the Competitor, from his claim to the crown against John Baliol [q. v.], succeeded to the lordship of Annandale on his father's death in 1245, and on that of his mother in 1251 to ten knights’ fees in England, her share of the earldom of Huntingdon. He married, the year before his father died, Isabel, daughter of Gilbert de clam, an of Gloucester. His active career was distributed between the two kingdoms, in each of which he was a powerful subject.

In 1238 Alexander II, on the eve of an expedition to the Western Isles, despairing of issue, recognised the claim of Bruce to the succession; but the birth of Alexander III in 1241 frustrated his hopes. In 1250 he acted as one of the justices of Henry III, but during the next seven years he appears to have transferred his field of action to Scotland. On the death of Alexander II in 1255 he was one of the fifteen regents named in the convocation of Roxburgh to act during the minority of the young king, and be formed the head of the party favourable to the English alliance cemented by the king’s marriage to Margaret, daughter of Henry III. That king appointed him sheriff of Cumberland and governor ofCarlisle. Between 1257 and 1271 he again frequently served on the English kings bench, and in 1268 he was appointed capitalis justiciarius, being the first chief justice of England, with a salary of 100 marks. In 1260 he accompanied the king and queen of Scotland to London. In the Barons’ war he fought for Henry, and was taken prisoner at Lewes in 1264, but was released after the victory of Evesham (1265) turned the tide in favour of the king, when he resumed his office as sheriif of Cumberland. On the accession of Edward I he was not reappointed to the bench, and appears again to have returned to Scotland. He was present at the convention of Scone, 5 Feb. 1283-4, by which the right of succession of Margaret, the Maid of Norway, was recognised; but on the death of Alexander III in 1286 a powerful party of nobles met at Turnberry Castle, belonging to his son Robert, earl of Carrick, in right of his wife, and pledged themselves to support each other an vindicate the claims of whoever should gain the kingdom by right of blood, according to the ancient customs of Scotland. They assumed as allies Richard de Burgh, earl of Ulster, and Thomas de Clare, to whom authority was given to proceed with arms against any one who broke the conditions of the bond, 20 Sept. 1286 (Documents illustration of the History of Scotland, edited by Rev. Stevenson, i. 22). The nobles who joined in this league were Patrick, earl of Dunbar, his three sons, and his son-in-law James the Steward of Scotland, and his brother John, Walter Stewart earl of Menteith, Angus, son of Donald lord of the Isles, his son Alexander, and the two Bruces, the lord of Annandale,