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1861, just after finishing a view of Naples and Messina. Among the panoramas exhibited may be mentioned the ‘Battle of Waterloo,’ ‘Cabool,’ ‘Baden,’ ‘The Embarkation of the Queen at Treport,’ ‘Athens,’ ‘Constantinople,’ ‘Grand Cairo,’ ‘Ruins of Pompeii,’ ‘The Polar Regions,’ ‘The Battle of the Alma,’ ‘Siege of Sebastopol,’ ‘Venice,’ ‘Rome,’ ‘Rio Janeiro,’ &c.

[Redgrave's Dictionary of Artists (1878); MS. notes in British Museum.]

L. F.

BURFORD, THOMAS (fl. 1740–1765), mezzotint engraver, was born about 1710, and is said to have died in London in 1770. His prints, however, range from 1741 to 1765. He was a member of the Incorporated Society of Artists, and scraped some plates of landscapes and hunting, but was best known as an engraver of portraits. Mr. John Chaloner Smith, in his ‘Catalogue of British Mezzotinto Portraits,’ describes twenty plates by him, in addition to a set of twelve three-quarter length portraits of ladies in ovals representing the months, published in 1745; and a female figure, with the title of ‘Plenty,’ published in 1749. Among the portraits we have William, duke of Cumberland, after Murray; Frederick V of Denmark, George II, Charles Emmanuel of Sardinia, William Warburton, and Edward, duke of York.

[Redgrave's Dictionary of Artists (1878).]

L. F.

BURGES or BURGESS, CORNELIUS, D.D. (1589?–1665), ejected minister, descended from the Burgesses of Batcombe, Somerset, was probably born in 1589. In 1611 he was entered at Oxford, but at what college is unknown. He was transferred to Wadham College, and graduated B.A. on 5 July 1615, and thence migrated to Lincoln College, of which he was a member when he graduated M.A. on 20 April 1618. He must have taken orders before graduation, if it be true that on 21 Dec. 1613 he obtained the vicarage of Watford, Hertfordshire, on the presentation of Sir Charles Morison. On 16 Jan. 1626 he was allowed to hold, along with Watford, the rectory of St. Magnus, London Bridge. This latter he resigned in 1641, his successor being admitted on 20 July. Soon after the accession of Charles I he was made one of the king's chaplains in ordinary, and on 16 June 1627 he was made B.D. and D.D. by his university (he was admitted ad eund. at Cambridge in 1647). At his exercises on the occasion John Prideaux, regius professor of divinity, told him he was well enough as a preacher, but no good disputant. It turns out, however, that this often-repeated quip simply means that Burges was not well practised in the technic of logomachy; instead of saying negatur major, he outraged all propriety by saying negatur id. Wood represents him as being at this time a zealous son of the church, and as only taking to schismatical courses through the disappointment of his eagerness for preferment. That the churchmanship of Burges rested upon the basis of a Calvinistic theology is well shown in his ‘Baptismal Regeneration of Elect Infants,’ published at Oxford in 1629 [see Bedford, Thomas, (fl. 1650)]. A Latin sermon, preached in 1635 to the London clergy at St. Alphage's, London Wall, brought him before the high commission court. In this discourse he had blamed the connivance of bishops at the growth of Arminianism and popery. The proceeding caused him trouble and expense, and deepened his hostility to the party of Laud. He was accused of being ‘a vexer of two parishes with continual suits of law.’ This may mean that he resisted the demands of visitation articles in reference to ceremonial observance. An Oxford pamphlet of 1648 is Wood's authority for saying that he was ‘looked upon by the high commission as one guilty of adultery.’ It is plain that there was no evidence to substantiate the charge. The prestige of Burges steadily increased. In September 1640 he conveyed to the king at York the petition of the London clergy against the ‘etcetera oath,’ and succeeded in getting it dispensed with. Clarendon goes so far as to say that the influence of Burges and Stephen Marshall was greater with both houses of parliament than that of Laud had ever been with the court, a statement which, as Calamy observes, ‘carries a pretty strong figure in it.’ To link Burges and Marshall together, as though their views and policy were identical, is an error. Wood also puts Burges and Marshall at the head of those who preached in 1640, ‘that for the cause of religion it was lawful for the subjects to take up arms against their lawful sovereign.’ Wood does not seem to have seen the ‘Vindication of the Ministers of the Gospel in and about London,’ drawn up by Burges in January 1649, and subscribed by fifty-six other ministers who followed his lead. This very able paper is of the first importance for the true understanding of the attitude of loyal men on the puritan side throughout this crisis (Calamy, Abridgement, 61). Burges came to the front rank of leaders on the ecclesiastical question in 1641, in connection with the effort made by the House of Lords for an accommodation of ecclesiastical differences. On 12 March the lords' ‘committee for innovations’ called in the assistance of a body of divines to take part in a