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earl of Clanricarde under Charles II. Clanricarde was eulogised for his loyalty by his contemporary Clarendon, and by Carte. A different estimate of the acts and character of Clanricarde was entertained by a large proportion of the Irish royalists. In their view he was largely actuated by a regard for his own interests. Some of Clanricarde's letters and papers, relative to Irish affairs from 1650 to 1652, were printed in octavo at London in 1722, under the title of ‘Memoirs of the Right Honourable the Marquis of Clanricarde, Lord Deputy-general of Ireland … published from his Lordship's original MSS.’ This, which Bishop Nicholson styled a ‘lean, loose, and incoherent’ collection, was reprinted at Dublin in 1744. John, eleventh earl of Clanricarde, published at London in 1757 a large folio volume, which he entitled ‘Memoirs and Letters of Ulick, Marquis of Clanricarde, Earl of St. Albans, Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland …,’ printed, for the first time, from ‘an authentic manuscript.’ In a dedication to the king, the Earl of Clanricarde stated that the volume contained the ‘genuine memoirs’ of his ancestor. The letters in the first part of the volume date from October 1641 to the end of August 1643. The second part, consisting of sixty-five pages, is composed of letters and papers which commence in February 1650–1 and terminate in August 1652. A manuscript volume of the seventeenth century, containing matter similar to that thus printed in 1757, was for a time in the possession of the Library Company of Philadelphia, which in 1866, at the suggestion of the late Hepworth Dixon, presented it to the British government. Other collections, which Clanricarde is stated to have left, in relation to his public transactions, are not now known to exist. Many original documents in connection with Clanricarde and his career were published for the first time in 1881 in the work entitled ‘A Contemporary History of Affairs in Ireland, 1641–52.’

[Carte and Clarendon MSS., 1641–52 (Bodleian Library, Oxford); Ormonde Archives (Kilkenny Castle); Manuscripts of Royal Irish Academy and Trinity College, Dublin; Rinuccini MSS. (Holkham, Norfolk); State Papers, Ireland (Public Record Office, London); Vindiciæ Catholicorum Hiberniæ, 1650; Vindiciæ Eversæ, 1653; Alithinologia, 1666–7; Memoirs of Earl of Castlehaven, 1680; Clarendon's Hist. of Rebellion and Civil Wars in England and Ireland, 1720, 1843; Carte's Life of Ormonde, 1736; Collins's Letters and Memorials of State, 1746; Peerage of Ireland, 1789; Nunziatura in Irlanda, 1844; Genealogies of Hy-Fiachrach, 1844; Description of West Connacht, 1846; Annals of Kingdom of Ireland, 1851; Hist. of Viceroys of Ireland, 1865; Documents illustrative of Hist. of Scotland, 1870; Hist. of Irish Confederation and War in Ireland, 1641–3, 1882; Reports of Royal Commission on Hist. MSS.]

J. T. G.


BURGH, Sir ULYSSES BAGENAL, Lord Downes (1788–1863),general, only son of Thomas Burgh, comptroller-general and commissioner of the revenue of Ireland, was born at Dublin on 15 Aug. 1788. Thomas Burgh was grandson of Ulysses Burgh, bishop of Ardagh, and second cousin of William Downes, who was lord chief justice of Ireland from 1803 to 1822, and his two sisters had married respectively the chancellor of the exchequer and the lord chief baron of Ireland. With such influence the rapid promotion of Ulysses Burgh, when he decided to enter the army, was certain. He was gazetted ensign in the 54th regiment on 31 March 1804, and was promoted lieutenant on 12 Nov. 1804, and captain on 4 Sept. 1806. He was employed in ordinary garrison duty with his regiment at Gibraltar and in the West Indies till 1808, when he exchanged into the 92nd and accompanied Sir John Cradock, afterwards Lord Howden, to Portugal as aide-de-camp. When Sir Arthur Wellesley succeeded Cradock, he in his turn took Burgh, whose father was his intimate friend, as an aide-de-camp. Burgh was present at Talavera, where he was slightly wounded (Wellington Despatches, iii. 380). He brought home the despatch announcing the victory of Busaco on 29 Sept. 1810, was promoted major for the news, and was back again in Portugal by January 1811. He was then present at the battle of Fuentes d'Onor, at the combat of El Bodon, at the storming of Ciudad Rodrigo and Badajoz, and the battle of Salamanca, and again took home the news of Wellington's triumphal entry into Madrid. He was promoted lieutenant-colonel on 25 Sept. 1812. He quickly returned to the Peninsula, and was present at the battles of Vittoria and the Pyrenees, at the storm of San Sebastian, at the battle of the Nivelle, where his horse was killed under him; at the battle of the Nive, and the battle of Toulouse, where he was again wounded. At the conclusion of the war in 1814 he was made K.C.B. and K.T.S., and was given a company in the 1st or Grenadier guards, and in the following year he married a great Irish heiress, Miss Maria Bagenal of Athy.

Burgh's service in the field was now over, but Wellington did not neglect his old aide-de-camp. He became surveyor-general of the ordnance in March 1820, and colonel in May 1825, and in March 1826 he succeeded to the title of Lord Downes, which had been